Tag Archives: Anything you want

London Olympics 2012 Medal Tables At A Glance?

Looking at the various medal standings for medals awarded during any Olympics games is all very well, but it doesn’t really show where each country won its medals or whether particular sports are dominated by a single country. Ranked as they are by the number of gold medals won, the medal standings don’t make it easy to see what we might term “strength in depth” – that is, we don’t get an sense of how the rankings might change if other medal colours were taken into account in some way.

Four years ago, in a quick round up of visualisations from the 2008 Beijing Olympics (More Olympics Medal Table Visualisations) I posted an example of an IBM Many Eyes Treemap visualisation I’d created showing how medals had been awarded across the top 10 medal winning countries. (Quite by chance, a couple of days ago I noticed one of the visualisations I’d created had appeared as an example in an academic paper – A Magic Treemap Cube for Visualizing
Olympic Games Data
).

Although not that widely used, I personally find treemaps a wonderful device for providing a macroscopic overview of a dataset. Whilst getting actual values out of them may be hit and miss, they can be used to provide a quick orientation around a hierarchically ordered dataset. Yes, it may be hard to distinguish detail, but you can easily get your eye in and start framing more detailed questions to ask of the data.

Whilst there is still a lot more thinking I’d like to do around the use of treemaps for visualising Olympics medal data using treemaps, here are a handful of quick sketches constructed using Google visualisation chart treemap components, and data scraped from NBC.

The data I have scraped is represented using rows of the form:

Country, Event, Gold, Silver, Bronze

where Event is at the level of “Swimming”, “Cycling” etc rather than at finer levels of detail (it’s really hard finding data at even this level of data in an easily grabbable way?)

I’ve then treated the data as hierarchically structured over three levels, which can be arranged in six ways:

  • MedalType, Country, Event
  • MedalType, Event, Country
  • Event, MedalType, Country
  • Event, Country, MedalType
  • Country, MedalType, Event
  • Country, Event, MedalType

Each ordering provides a different view over the data, and can be used to get a feel for different stories that are to be told.

First up, ordered by Medal, Country, Event:

This is a representation, of sorts, of the traditional medal standings table. If you look to the Gold segment, you can see the top few countries by medal count. We can also zoom in to see what events those medals tended to be awarded in:

The colouring is a bit off – the Google components is not as directly scriptable as a d3js treemap, for example – but with a bit of experimentation it may be able to find a colour scheme that better indicates the number of medals allocated in each case.

The Medal-Country-Event view thus allows us to get a feel for the overall medal standings. But how about the extent to which one country or another dominated an event? In this case, an Event-Country-Medal view gives us a feeling for strength in depth (ie we’re happy to take a point of view based on the the award of any medal type:

The Country-Event-Medal view gives us a view of the relative strength in depth of each country in each event:

and the Country Medal Event view allows us to then tunnel in on the gold winning events:

I think that colour could be used to make these charts even more accessible – maybe using different colouring schemes for the different variations – which is something I need to start thinking about (please feel free to make suggestions in the comments:-). It would also be good to have a little more control over the text that is displayed. The Google chart component is a little limited in this respect, so I think I need to find an alternative for more involved play – d3js seems like it’d be a good bet, although I need to do a quick review of R based treemap libraries too to see if there is anything there that may be appropriate.

It’d probably also be worth jotting down a few notes about what each of the six hierarchical variants might be good for highlighting, as well as exploring just as quick doodles with the Google chart component simpler treemaps that don’t reveal lower level structure, leaving that to be discovered through interactivity. (I showed the lower levels in the above treemaps because I was exploring static (i.e. printable) macroscopic views over the medal standings data.)

Data allowing, it would also be interesting to be able to get more detailed data visualised (for example, down to the level of actual events- 100m and Long Jump, for example, rather than Tack and Field, as well as the names of individual medalists.

PS for another Olympics related visualisation I’ve started exploring, see At A Glance View of the 2012 Olympics Heptathlon Performances

PPS As mentioned at the start, I love treemaps. See for example this initial demo of an F1 Championship points treemap in Many Eyes and as an Ergast Motor Sport API powered ‘live’ visualisation using a Google treemap chart component: A Treemap View of the F1 2011 Drivers and Constructors Championship

Advertisements

F1 Championship Points as a d3.js Powered Sankey Diagram

d3.js crossed my path a couple of times yesterday: firstly, in the form of an enquiry about whether I’d be interested in writing a book on d3.js (I’m not sure I’m qualified: as I responded, I’m more of a script kiddie who sees things I can reuse, rather than have any understanding at all about how d3.js does what it does…); secondly, via a link to d3.js creator Mike Bostock’s new demo of Sankey diagrams built using d3.js:

Hmm… Sankey diagrams are good for visualising flow, so to get to grips myself with seeing if I could plug-and-play with the component, I needed an appropriate data set. F1 related data is usually my first thought as far as testbed data goes (no confidences to break, the STEM/innovation outreach/tech transfer context, etc etc) so what things flow in F1? What quantities are conserved whilst being passed between different classes of entity? How about points… points are awarded on a per race basis to drivers who are members of teams. It’s also a championship sport, run over several races. The individual Driver Championship is a competition between drivers to accumulate the most points over the course of the season, and the Constructor Chanmpionship is a battle between teams. Which suggests to me that a Sankey plot of points from races to drivers and then constructors might work?

So what do we need to do? First up, look at the source code for the demo using View Source. Here’s the relevant bit:

Data is being pulled in from a relatively addressed file, energy.json. Let’s see what it looks like:

Okay – a node list and an edge list. From previous experience, I know that there is a d3.js JSON exporter built into the Python networkx library, so maybe we can generate the data file from a network representation of the data in networkx?

Here we are: node_link_data(G) “[r]eturn data in node-link format that is suitable for JSON serialization and use in Javascript documents.”

Next step – getting the data. I’ve already done a demo of visualising F1 championship points sourced from the Ergast motor racing API as a treemap (but not blogged it? Hmmm…. must fix that) that draws on a JSON data feed constructed from data extracted from the Ergast API so I can clone that code and use it as the basis for constructing a directed graph that represents points allocations: race nodes are linked to driver nodes with edges weighted by points scored in that race, and driver nodes are connected to teams by edges weighted according to the total number of points the driver has earned so far. (Hmm, that gives me an idea for a better way of coding the weight for that edge…)

I don’t have time to blog the how to of the code right now – train and boat to catch – but will do so later. If you want to look at the code, it’s here: Ergast Championship nodelist. And here’s the result – F1 Chanpionship 2012 Points as a Sankey Diagram:

See what I mean about being a cut and paste script kiddie?!;-)

Inter-Council Payments and the Google Fusion Tables Network Graph

One of the great things about aggregating local spending data from different councils in the same place – such as on OpenlyLocal – is that you can start to explore structural relations in the way different public bodies of a similar type spend money with each other.

On the local spend with corporates scraper on Scraperwiki, which I set up to scrape how different councils spent money with particular suppliers, I realised I could also use the scraper to search for how councils spent money with other councils, by searching for suppliers containing phrases such as “district council” or “town council”. (We could also generate views to to see how councils wre spending money with different police authorities, for example.)

(The OpenlyLocal API doesn’t seem to work with the search, so I scraped the search results HTML pages instead. Results are paged, with 30 results per page, and what seems like a maximum of 1500 (50 pages) of results possible.)

The publicmesh table on the scraper captures spend going to a range of councils (not parish councils) from other councils. I also uploaded the data to Google Fusion tables (public mesh spending data), and then started to explore it using the new network graph view (via the Experiment menu). So for example, we can get a quick view over how the various county councils make payments to each other:

Hovering over a node highlights the other nodes its connected to (though it would be good if the text labels from the connected nodes were highlighted and labels for unconnected nodes were greyed out?)

(I think a Graphviz visualisation would actually be better, eg using Canviz, because it can clearly show edges from A to B as well as B to A…)

As with many exploratory visualisations, this view helps us identify some more specific questions we might want to ask of the data, rather than presenting a “finished product”.

As well as the experimental network graph view, I also noticed there’s a new Experimental View for Google Fusion Tables. As well as the normal tabular view, we also get a record view, and (where geo data is identified?) a map view:

What I’d quite like to see is a merging of map and network graph views…

One thing I noticed whilst playing with Google Fusion Tables is that getting different aggregate views is rather clunky and relies on column order in the table. So for example, here’s an aggregated view of how different county councils supply other councils:

In order to aggregate by supplied council, we need to reorder the columns (the aggregate view aggregates columns as thet appear from left to right in the table view). From the Edit column, Modify Table:

(In my browser, I then had to reload the page for the updated schema to be reflected in the view). Then we can get the count aggregation:

It would be so much easier if the aggregation view allowed you to order the columns there…

PS no time to blog this properly right now, but there are a couple of new javascript libraries that are worth mentioning in the datawrangling context.

In part coming out of the Guardian stable, Misoproject is “an open source toolkit designed to expedite the creation of high-quality interactive storytelling and data visualisation content”. The initial dataset library provides a set of routines for: loading data into the browser from a variety of sources (CSV, Google spreadsheets, JSON), including regular polling; creating and managing data tables and views of those tables within the browser, including column operations such as grouping, statistical operations (min, max, mean, moving average etc); playing nicely with a variety of client side graphics libraries (eg d3.js, Highcharts, Rickshaw and other JQuery graphics plugins).

Recline.js is a library from Max Ogden and the Open Knowledge Foundation that if its name is anything to go by is positioning itself as an alternative (or complement?) to Google Refine. To my mind though, it’s more akin to a Google Fusion Tables style user interface (“classic” version) wherever you need it, via a Javascript library. The data explorer allows you to import and preview CSV, Excel, Google Spreadsheet and ElasticSearch data from a URL, as well as via file upload (so for example, you can try it with the public spend mesh data CSV from Scraperwiki). Data can be sorted, filtered and viewed by facet, and there’s a set of integrated graphical tools for previewing and displaying data too. Refine.js views can also be shared and embedded, which makes this an ideal tool for data publishers to embed in their sites as a way of facilitating engagement with data on-site, as I expect we’ll see on the Data Hub before too long.

More reviews of these two libraries later…

PPS These are also worth a look in respect of generating visualisations based on data stored in Google spreadsheets: DataWrapper and Freedive (like my old Guardian Datastore explorer, but done properly… Wizard led UI that helps you create your own searchable and embeddable database view direct from a Google Spreadsheet).

University Funding – A Wider View

A post on the Guardian Datablog yesterday (Higher education funding: which institutions will be affected?) alerted me to the release of HEFCE’s “provisional allocations of recurrent funding for teaching and research, and the setting of student number control limits for institutions, for academic year 2012-13″ (funding data).

Here are the OU figures for teaching:

Funding for old-regime students (mainstream) Funding for old-regime students (co-funding) High cost funding for new-regime students Widening participation Teaching enhancement and student success Other targeted allocations Other recurrent teaching grants Total teaching funding
59,046,659 0 2,637,827 23,273,796 17,277,704 22,619,320 3,991,473 128,846,779

HEFCE preliminary teaching funding allocations to the Open University, 2012-13

Of the research funding for 2012-13, mainstream funding was 8,030,807, the RDP supervision fund came in at 1,282,371, along with 604,103 “other”, making up the full 9,917,281 research allocation.

Adding Higher Education Innovation Funding of 950,000, the OU’s total allocation was 139,714,060.

So what other funding comes into the universities from public funds?

Open Spending publishes data relating to spend by government departments to named organisations, so we can search that for data spent by government departments with the universities (for example, here is a search on OpenSpending.org for “open university”:

Given the amounts spent by public bodies on consultancy (try searching OpenCorporates for mentions of PriceWaterhouseCoopers, or any of EDS, Capita, Accenture, Deloitte, McKinsey, BT’s consulting arm, IBM, Booz Allen, PA, KPMG (h/t @loveitloveit)), university based consultancy may come in reasonably cheaply?

The universities also receive funding for research via the UK research councils (EPSRC, ESRC, AHRC, MRC, BBSRC, NERC, STFC) along with innovation funding from JISC. Unpicking the research council funding awards to universities can be a bit of a chore, but scrapers are appearing on Scraperwiki that make for easier access to individual grant awards data:

  • AHRC funding scraper; [grab data using queries of the form select * from `swdata` where organisation like "%open university%" on scraper arts-humanities-research-council-grants]
  • EPSRC funding scraper; [grab data using queries of the form select * from `grants` where department_id in (select distinct id as department_id from `departments` where organisation_id in (select id from `organisations` where name like "%open university%")) on scraper epsrc_grants_1]
  • ESRC funding scraper; [grab data using queries of the form select * from `grantdata` where institution like "%open university%" on scraper esrc_research_grants]
  • BBSRC funding [broken?] scraper;
  • NERC funding [broken?] scraper;
  • STFC funding scraper; [grab data using queries of the form select * from `swdata` where institution like "%open university%" on scraper stfc-institution-data]

In order to get a unified view over the detailed funding of the institutions from these different sources, the data needs to be reconciled. There are several ID schemes for identifying universities (eg UCAS or HESA codes; see for example GetTheData: Universities by Mission Group) but even official data releases tend not make use of these, preferring instead to rely solely on insitution names, as for example in the case of the recent HEFCE provisional funding data release [DOh! This is not the case – identifiers are there, apparently (I have to admit, I didn’t check and was being a little hasty… See the contribution/correction from David Kernohan in the comments to this post…]:

For some time, I’ve been trying to put my finger on why data releases like this are so hard to work with, and I think I’ve twigged it… even when released in a spreadsheet form, the data often still isn’t immediately “database-ready” data. Getting data from a spreadsheet into a database often requires an element of hands-on crafting – coping with rows that contain irregular comment data, as well as handling columns or rows with multicolumn and multirow labels. So here are a couple of things that would make life easier in the short term, though they maybe don’t represent best practice in the longer term…:

1) release data as simple CSV files (odd as it may seem), because these can be easily loaded into applications that can actually work on the data as data. (I haven’t started to think too much yet about pragmatic ways of dealing with spreadsheets where cell values are generated by formulae, because they provide an audit trail from one data set to derived views generated from that data.)

2) have a column containing regular identifiers using a known identification scheme, for example, HESA or UCAS codes for HEIs. If the data set is a bit messy, and you can only partially fill the ID column, then only partially fill it; it’ll make life easier joining those rows at least to other related datasets…

As far as UK HE goes, the JISC monitoring unit/JISCMU has a an api over various administrative data elements relating to UK HEIs (eg GetTheData: Postcode data for HE and FE institutes, but I don’t think it offers a Google Refine reconciliation service, (ideally with some sort of optional string similarity service)…? Yet?! 😉 maybe that’d make for a good rapid innovation project???

PS I’m reminded of a couple of related things: Test Your RESTful API With YQL, a corollary to the idea that you can check your data at least works by trying to use it (eg generate a simple chart from it) mapped to the world of APIs: if you can’t easily generate a YQL table/wrapper for it, it’s maybe not that easy to use? 2) the scraperwiki/okf post from @frabcus and @rufuspollock on the need for data management systems not content management systems.

PPS Looking at the actual Guardian figures reveals all sorts of market levers appearing… Via @dkernohan, FT: A quiet Big Bang in universities

Different Speeches? Digital Skills Aren’t just About Coding…

Secretary of State for Education, Michael Gove, gave a speech yesterday on rethinking the ICT curriculum in UK schools. You can read a copy of the speech variously on the Department for Education website, or, err, on the Guardian website.

Seeing these two copies of what is apparently the same speech, I started wondering:

a) which is the “best” source to reference?
b) how come the Guardian doesn’t add a disclaimer about the provenance of, and link, to the DfE version? [Note the disclaimer in the DfE version – “Please note that the text below may not always reflect the exact words used by the speaker.”]
c) is the Guardian version an actual transcript, maybe? That is, does the Guardian reprint the “exact words” used by the speaker?

And that made me think I should do a diff… About which, more below…

Before that, however, here’s a quick piece of reflection on how these two things – the reinvention of the the IT curriculum, and the provenance of, and value added to, content published on news and tech industry blog sites – collide in my mind…

So for example, I’ve been pondering what the role of journalism is, lately, in part because I’m trying to clarify in my own mind what I think the practice and role of data journalism are (maybe I should apply for a Nieman-Berkman Fellowship in Journalism Innovation to work on this properly?!). It seems to me that “communication” is one important part (raising awareness of particular issues, events, or decisions), and holding governments and companies to account is another. (Actually, I think Paul Bradshaw has called me out on that, before, suggesting it was more to do with providing an evidence base through verification and triangulation, as well as comment, against which governments and companies could be held to account (err, I think? As an unjournalist, I don’t have notes or a verbatim quote against which to check that statement, and I’m too lazy to email/DM/phone Paul to clarify what he may or may not have said…(The extent of my checking is typically limited to what I can find on the web or in personal archives…which appear to be lacking on this point…))

Another thing I’ve been mulling over recently in a couple of contexts relates to the notion of what are variously referred to as digital or information skills.

The first context is “data journalism”, and the extent to which data journalists need to be able to do programming (in the sense of identifying the steps in a process that can be automated and how they should be sequenced or organised) versus writing code. (I can’t write code for toffee, but I can read it well enough to copy, paste and change bits that other people have written. That is, I can appropriate and reuse other people’s code, but can’t write it from scratch very well… Partly because I can’t ever remember the syntax and low level function names. I can also use tools such as Yahoo Pipes and Google Refine to do coding like things…) Then there’s the question of what to call things like URL hacking or (search engine) query building?

The second context is geeky computer techie stuff in schools, the sort of thing covered by Michael Gove’s speech at the BETT show on the national ICT curriculum (or lack thereof), and about which the educational digerati were all over on Twitter yesterday. Over the weekend, houseclearing my way through various “archives”, I came across all manner of press clippings from 2000-2005 or so about the activities of the OU Robotics Outreach Group, of which I was a co-founder (the web presence has only recently been shut down, in part because of the retirement of the sys admin on whose server the websites resided.) This group ran an annual open meeting every November for several years hosting talks from the educational robotics community in the UK (from primary school to HE level). The group also co-ordinated the RoboCup Junior competition in the UK, ran outreach events, developed various support materials and activities for use with Lego Mindstorms, and led the EPSRC/AHRC Creative Robotics Research Network.

At every robotics event, we’d try to involve kids and/or adults in elements of problem solving, mechanical design, programming (not really coding…) based around some sort of themed challenge: a robot fashion show, for example, or a treasure hunt (both variants on edge following/line following;-) Or a robot rescue mission, as used in a day long activity in the “Engineering: An Active Introduction” (TXR120) OU residential school, or the 3 hour “Robot Theme Park” team building activity in the Masters level “Team Engineering” (T885) weekend school. [If you’re interested, we may be able to take bookings to run these events at your institution. We can make them work at a variety of difficulty levels from KS3-4 and up;-)]

Given that working at the bits-atoms interface is where the a lot of the not-purely-theoretical-or-hardcore-engineering innovation and application development is likely to take place over the next few years, any mandate to drop the “boring” Windows training ICT stuff in favour of programming (which I suspect can be taught in not only a really tedious way, but a really confusing and badly delivered way too) is probably Not the Best Plan.

Slightly better, and something that I know is currently being mooted for reigniting interest in computing, is the Raspberry Pi, a cheap, self-contained, programmable computer on a board (good for British industry, just like the BBC Micro was…;-) that allows you to work at the interface between the real world of atoms and the virtual world of bits that exists inside the computer. (See also things like the OU Senseboard, as used on the OU course “My Digital Life” (TU100).)

If schools were actually being encouraged to make a financial investment on a par with the level of investment around the introduction of the BBC Micro, back in the day, I’d suggest a 3D printer would have more of the wow factor…(I’ll doodle more on the rationale behind this in another post…) The financial climate may not allow for that (but I bet budget will manage to get spent anyway…) but whatever the case, I think Gove needs to be wary about consigning kids to lessons of coding hell. And maybe take a look at programming in a wider creative context, such as robotics (the word “robotics” is one of the reason why I think it’s seen as a very specialised, niche subject; we need a better phrase, such as “Creative Technologies”, which could combine elements of robotics, games programming, photoshop, and, yex, Powerpoint too… Hmm… thinks.. the OU has a couple of courses that have just come to the end of their life that between them provide a couple of hundred hours of content and activity on robotics (T184) and games programming (T151), and that we delivered, in part, to 6th formers under the OU’s Young Applicants in Schools Scheme.

Anyway, that’s all as maybe… Because there are plenty of digital skills that let you do coding like things without having to write code. Such as finding out whether there are any differences between the text in the DfE copy of Gove’s BETT speech, and the Guardian copy.

Copy the text from each page into a separate text file, and save it. (You’ll need a text editor for that..) Then, if you haven’t already got one, find yourself a good text editor. I use Text Wrangler on a Mac. (Actually, I think MS Word may have a diff function?)

FInding diffs between txt doccs in Text Wrangler

The difference’s all tend to be in the characters used for quotation marks (character encodings are one of the things that can make all sorts of programmes fall over, or misbehave. Just being aware that they may cause a problem, as well as how and why, would be a great step in improving the baseline level understanding of folk IT. Some of the line breaks don’t quite match up either, but other than that, the text is the same.

Now, this may be because Gove was a good little minister and read out the words exactly as they had been prepared. Or it may be the case that the Guardian just reprinted the speech without mentioning provenance, or the disclaimer that he may not actually have read the words of that speech (I have vague memories of an episode of Yes, Minister, here…;-)

Whatever the case, if you know: a) that it’s even possible to compare two documents to see if they are different (a handy piece of folk IT knowledge); and b) know a tool that does it (or how to find a tool that does it, or a person that may have a tool that can do it), then you can compare the texts for yourself. And along the way, maybe learn that churnalism, in a variety of forms, is endemic in the media. Or maybe just demonstrate to yourself when the media is acting in a purely comms, rather than journalistic, role?

PS other phrases in the area: “computational thinking”. Hear, for example: A conversation with Jeannette Wing about computational thinking

PPS I just remembered – there’s a data journalism hook around this story too… from a tweet exchange last night that I was reminded of by an RT:

josiefraser: RT @grmcall: Of the 28,000 new teachers last year in the UK, 3 had a computer-related degree. Not 3000, just 3.
dlivingstone: @josiefraser Source??? Not found it yet. RT @grmcall: 28000 new UK teachers last year, 3 had a computer-related degree. Not 3000, just 3
josiefraser: That ICT qualification teacher stat RT @grmcall: Source is the Guardian http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2012/jan/09/computer-studies-in-schools

I did a little digging and found the following document on the General Teaching Council of England website – Annual digest of statistics 2010–11 – Profiles of registered teachers in England [PDF] – that contains demographic stats, amongst others, for UK teachers. But no stats relating to subject areas of degree level qualifications held, which is presumably the data referred to in the tweet. So I’m thinking: this is partly where the role of data journalist comes in… They may not be able to verify the numbers by checking independent sources, but they may be able to shed some light on where the numbers came from and how they were arrived at, and maybe even secure their release (albeit as a single point source?)

Visualising Twitter Friend Connections Using Gephi: An Example Using the @WiredUK Friends Network

To corrupt a well known saying, “cook a man a meal and he’ll eat it; teach a man a recipe, and maybe he’ll cook for you…”, I thought it was probably about time I posted the recipe I’ve been using for laying out Twitter friends networks using Gephi, not least because I’ve been generating quite a few network files for folk lately, giving them copies, and then not having a tutorial to point them to. So here’s that tutorial…

The starting point is actually quite a long way down the “how did you that?” chain, but I have to start somewhere, and the middle’s easier than the beginning, so that’s where we’ll step in (I’ll give some clues as to how the beginning works at the end…;-)

Here’s what we’ll be working towards: a diagram that shows how the people on Twitter that @wiredUK follows follow each other:

@wireduk innerfriends

The tool we’re going to use to layout this graph from a data file is a free, extensible, open source, cross platform Java based tool called Gephi. If you want to play along, download the datafile. (Or try with a network of your own, such as your Facebook network.)

From the Gephi file menu, Open the appropriate graph file:

Gephi - file open

Import the file as a Directed Graph:

Gephi - import directed graph

The Graph window displays the graph in a raw form:

Gephi -graph view of imported graph

Sometimes a graph may contain nodes that are not connected to any other nodes. (For example, protected Twitter accounts do not publish – and are not published in – friends or followers lists publicly via the Twitter API.) Some layout algorithms may push unconnected nodes far away from the rest of the graph, which can affect generation of presentation views of the network, so we need to filter out these unconnected nodes. The easiest way of doing this is to filter the graph using the Giant Component filter.

Gephi - filter on Giant Component

To colour the graph, I often make us of the modularity statistic. This algorithm attempts to find clusters in the graph by identifying components that are highly interconnected.

Gephi - modularity statistic

This algorithm is a random one, so it’s often worth running it several times to see how many communities typically get identified.

A brief report is displayed after running the statistic:

Gephi - modularity statistic report

While we have the Statistics panel open, we can take the opportunity to run another measure: the HITS algorithm. This generates the well known Authority and Hub values which we can use to size nodes in the graph.

Gephi - HITS statistic

The next step is to actually colour the graph. In the Partition panel, refresh the partition options list and then select Modularity Class.

Gephi - select modularity partition

Choose appropriate colours (right click on each colour panel to select an appropriate colour for each class – I often select pastel colours) and apply them to the graph.

Gephi - colour nodes by modularity class

The next thing we want to do is lay out the graph. The Layout panel contains several different layout algorithms that can be used to support the visual analysis of the structures inherent in the network; (try some of them – each works in a slightly different way; some are also better than others for coping with large networks). For a network this size and this densely connected,I’d typically start out with one of the force directed layouts, that positions nodes according to how tightly linked they are to each other.

Gephi select a layout

When you select the layout type, you will notice there are several parameters you can play with. The default set is often a good place to start…

Run the layout tool and you should see the network start to lay itself out. Some algorithms require you to actually Stop the layout algorithm; others terminate themselves according to a stopping criterion, or because they are a “one-shot” application (such as the Expansion algorithm, which just scales the x and y values by a given factor).

Gephi - forceAtlas 2

We can zoom in and out on the layout of the graph using a mouse wheel (on my MacBook trackpad, I use a two finger slide up and down), or use the zoom slider from the “More options” tab:

Gephi zoom

To see which Twitter ID each node corresponds to, we can turn on the labels:

Gephi - labels

This view is very cluttered – the nodes are too close to each other to see what’s going on. The labels and the nodes are also all the same size, giving the same visual weight to each node and each label. One thing I like to do is resize the nodes relative to some property, and then scale the label size to be proportional to the node size.

Here’s how we can scale the node size and then set the text label size to be proportional to node size. In the Ranking panel, select the node size property, and the attribute you want to make the size proportional to. I’m going to use Authority, which is a network property that we calculated when we ran the HITS algorithm. Essentially, it’s a measure of how well linked to a node is.

Gephi - node sizing

The min size/max size slider lets us define the minimum and maximum node sizes. By default, a linear mapping from attribute value to size is used, but the spline option lets us use a non-linear mappings.

Gephi - node sizing spilne

I’m going with the default linear mapping…

Gephi - size nodes

We can now scale the labels according to node size:

Gephi - scale labels

Note that you can continue to use the text size slider to scale the size of all the displayed labels together.

This diagram is now looking quite cluttered – to make it easier to read, it would be good if we could spread it out a bit. The Expansion layout algorithm can help us do this:

Gephi - expansion

A couple of other layout algorithms that are often useful: the Transformation layout algorithm lets us scale the x and y axes independently (compared to the Expansion algorithm, which scales both axes by the same amount); and the Clockwise Rotate and Counter-Clockwise Rotate algorithm lets us rotate the whole layout (this can be useful if you want to rotate the graph so that it fits neatly into a landscape view.

The expanded layout is far easier to read, but some of the labels still overlap. The Label Adjust layout tool can jiggle the nodes so that they don’t overlap.

gephi - label adjust

(Note that you can also move individual nodes by clicking on them and dragging them.)

So – nearly there… The final push is to generate a good quality output. We can do this from the preview window:

Gephi preview window

The preview window is where we can generate good quality SVG renderings of the graph. The node size, colour and scaled label sizes are determined in the original Overview area (the one we were working in), although additional customisations are possible in the Preview area.

To render our graph, I just want to make a couple of tweaks to the original Default preview settings: Show Labels and set the base font size.

Gephi - preview settings

Click on the Refresh button to render the graph:

Gephi - preview refresh

Oops – I overdid the font size… let’s try again:

gephi - preview resize

Okay – so that’s a good start. Now I find I often enter into a dance between the Preview ad Overview panels, tweaking the layout until I get something I’m satisfied with, or at least, that’s half-way readable.

How to read the graph is another matter of course, though by using colour, sizing and placement, we can hopefully draw out in a visual way some interesting properties of the network. The recipe described above, for example, results in a view of the network that shows:

– groups of people who are tightly connected to each other, as identified by the modularity statistic and consequently group colour; this often defines different sorts of interest groups. (My follower network shows distinct groups of people from the Open University, and JISC, the HE library and educational technology sectors, UK opendata and data journalist types, for example.)
– people who are well connected in the graph, as displayed by node and label size.

Here’s my final version of the @wiredUK “inner friends” network:

@wireduk innerfriends

You can probably do better though…;-)

To recap, here’s the recipe again:

– filter on connected component (private accounts don’t disclose friend/follower detail to the api key i use) to give a connected graph;
– run the modularity statistic to identify clusters; sometimes I try several attempts
– colour by modularity class identified in previous step, often tweaking colours to use pastel tones
– I often use a force directed layout, then Expansion to spread to network out a bit if necessary; the Clockwise Rotate or Counter-Clockwise rotate will rotate the network view; I often try to get a landscape format; the Transformation layout lets you expand or contract the graph along a single axis, or both axes by different amounts.
– run HITS statistic and size nodes by authority
– size labels proportional to node size
– use label adjust and expand to to tweak the layout
– use preview with proportional labels to generate a nice output graph
– iterate previous two steps to a get a layout that is hopefully not completely unreadable…

Got that?!;-)

Finally, to the return beginning. The recipe I use to generate the data is as follows:

  1. grab a list of twitter IDs (call it L); there are several ways of doing this, for example: obtain a list of tweets on a particular topic by searching for a particular hashtag, then grab the set of unique IDs of people using the hashtag; grab the IDs of the members of one or more Twitter lists; grab the IDs of people following or followed by a particular person; grab the IDs of people sending geo-located tweets in a particular area;
  2. for each person P in L, add them as a node to a graph;
  3. for each person P in L, get a list of people followed by the corresponding person, e.g. Fr(P)
  4. for each X in e.g. Fr(P): if X in Fr(P) and X in L, create an edge [P,X] and add it to the graph
  5. save the graph in a format that can be visualised in Gephi.

To make this recipe, I use Tweepy and a Python script to call the Twitter API and get the friends lists from there, but you could use the Google Social API to get the same data. There’s an example of calling that API using Javscript in my “live” Twitter friends visualisation script (Using Protovis to Visualise Connections Between People Tweeting a Particular Term) as well as in the A Bit of NewsJam MoJo – SocialGeo Twitter Map.