Tag Archives: Something for the weekend

SFTW: Scraping data with Google Refine

For the first Something For The Weekend of 2012 I want to tackle a common problem when you’re trying to scrape a collection of webpage: they have some sort of structure in their URL like this, where part of the URL refers to the name or code of an entity:

  1. http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scottishschoolsonline/schools/freemealentitlement.asp?iSchoolID=5237521
  2. http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scottishschoolsonline/schools/freemealentitlement.asp?iSchoolID=5237629
  3. http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scottishschoolsonline/schools/freemealentitlement.asp?iSchoolID=5237823

In this instance, you can see that the URL is identical apart from a 7 digit code at the end: the ID of the school the data refers to.

There are a number of ways you could scrape this data. You could use Google Docs and the =importXML formula, but Google Docs will only let you use this 50 times on any one spreadsheet (you could copy the results and select Edit > Paste Special > Values Only and then use the formula a further 50 times if it’s not too many – here’s one I prepared earlier).

And you could use Scraperwiki to write a powerful scraper – but you need to understand enough coding to do so quickly (here’s a demo I prepared earlier).

A middle option is to use Google Refine, and here’s how you do it.

Assembling the ingredients

With the basic URL structure identified, we already have half of our ingredients. What we need  next is a list of the ID codes that we’re going to use to complete each URL.

An advanced search for “list seed number scottish schools filetype:xls” brings up a link to this spreadsheet (XLS) which gives us just that.

The spreadsheet will need editing: remove any rows you don’t need. This will reduce the time that the scraper will take in going through them. For example, if you’re only interested in one local authority, or one type of school, sort your spreadsheet so that you can delete those above or below them.

Now to combine  the ID codes with the base URL.

Bringing your data into Google Refine

Open Google Refine and create a new project with the edited spreadsheet containing the school IDs.

At the top of the school ID column click on the drop-down menu and select Edit column > Add column based on this column…

In the New column name box at the top call this ‘URL’.

In the Expression box type the following piece of GREL (Google Refine Expression Language):

http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scottishschoolsonline/schools/freemealentitlement.asp?iSchoolID=”+value

(Type in the quotation marks yourself – if you’re copying them from a webpage you may have problems)

The ‘value’ bit means the value of each cell in the column you just selected. The plus sign adds it to the end of the URL in quotes.

In the Preview window you should see the results – you can even copy one of the resulting URLs and paste it into a browser to check it works. (On one occasion Google Refine added .0 to the end of the ID number, ruining the URL. You can solve this by changing ‘value’ to value.substring(0,7) – this extracts the first 7 characters of the ID number, omitting the ‘.0′) UPDATE: in the comment Thad suggests “perhaps, upon import of your spreadsheet of IDs, you forgot to uncheck the importer option to Parse as numbers?”

Click OK if you’re happy, and you should have a new column with a URL for each school ID.

Grabbing the HTML for each page

Now click on the top of this new URL column and select Edit column > Add column by fetching URLs…

In the New column name box at the top call this ‘HTML’.

All you need in the Expression window is ‘value’, so leave that as it is.

Click OK.

Google Refine will now go to each of those URLs and fetch the HTML contents. As we have a couple thousand rows here, this will take a long time – hours, depending on the speed of your computer and internet connection (it may not work at all if either isn’t very fast). So leave it running and come back to it later.

Extracting data from the raw HTML with parseHTML

When it’s finished you’ll have another column where each cell is a bunch of HTML. You’ll need to create a new column to extract what you need from that, and you’ll also need some GREL expressions explained here.

First you need to identify what data you want, and where it is in the HTML. To find it, right-click on one of the webpages containing the data, and search for a key phrase or figure that you want to extract. Around that data you want to find a HTML tag like <table class=”destinations”> or <div id=”statistics”>. Keep that open in another window while you tweak the expression we come onto below…

Back in Google Refine, at the top of the HTML column click on the drop-down menu and select Edit column > Add column based on this column…

In the New column name box at the top give it a name describing the data you’re going to pull out.

In the Expression box type the following piece of GREL (Google Refine Expression Language):

value.parseHtml().select(“table.destinations”)[0].select(“tr”).toString()

(Again, type the quotation marks yourself rather than copying them from here or you may have problems)

I’ll break down what this is doing:

value.parseHtml()

parse the HTML in each cell (value)

.select(“table.destinations”)

find a table with a class (.) of “destinations” (in the source HTML this reads <table class=”destinations”>. If it was <div id=”statistics”> then you would write .select(“div#statistics”) – the hash sign representing an ‘id’ and the full stop representing a ‘class’.

[0]

This zero in square brackets tells Refine to only grab the first table – a number 1 would indicate the second, and so on. This is because numbering (“indexing”) generally begins with zero in programming.

.select(“tr”)

Now, within that table, find anything within the tag <tr>

.toString()

And convert the results into a string of text.

The results of that expression in the Preview window should look something like this:

<tr> <th></th> <th>Abbotswell School</th> <th>Aberdeen City</th> <th>Scotland</th> </tr> <tr> <th>Percentage of pupils</th> <td>25.5%</td> <td>16.3%</td> <td>22.6%</td> </tr>

This is still HTML, but a much smaller and manageable chunk. You could, if you chose, now export it as a spreadsheet file and use various techniques to get rid of the tags (Find and Replace, for example) and split the data into separate columns (the =SPLIT formula, for example).

Or you could further tweak your GREL code in Refine to drill further into your data, like so:

value.parseHtml().select(“table.destinations”)[0].select(“td”)[0].toString()

Which would give you this:

<td>25.5%</td>

Or you can add the .substring function to strip out the HTML like so (assuming that the data you want is always 5 characters long):

value.parseHtml().select(“table.destinations”)[0].select(“td”)[0].toString().substring(5,10)

When you’re happy, click OK and you should have a new column for that data. You can repeat this for every piece of data you want to extract into a new column.

Then click Export in the upper right corner and save as a CSV or Excel file.

More on how this data was used on Help Me Investigate Education.

Scraping data from a list of webpages using Google Docs

Quite often when you’re looking for data as part of a story, that data will not be on a single page, but on a series of pages. To manually copy the data from each one – or even scrape the data individually – would take time. Here I explain a way to use Google Docs to grab the data for you.

Some basic principles

Although Google Docs is a pretty clumsy tool to use to scrape webpages, the method used is much the same as if you were writing a scraper in a programming language like Python or Ruby. For that reason, I think this is a good quick way to introduce the basics of certain types of scrapers.

Here’s how it works:

Firstly, you need a list of links to the pages containing data.

Quite often that list might be on a webpage which links to them all, but if not you should look at whether the links have any common structure, for example “http://www.country.com/data/australia” or “http://www.country.com/data/country2″. If it does, then you can generate a list by filling in the part of the URL that changes each time (in this case, the country name or number), assuming you have a list to fill it from (i.e. a list of countries, codes or simple addition).

Second, you need the destination pages to have some consistent structure to them. In other words, they should look the same (although looking the same doesn’t mean they have the same structure – more on this below).

The scraper then cycles through each link in your list, grabs particular bits of data from each linked page (because it is always in the same place), and saves them all in one place.

Scraping with Google Docs using =importXML – a case study

If you’ve not used =importXML before it’s worth catching up on my previous 2 posts How to scrape webpages and ask questions with Google Docs and =importXML and Asking questions of a webpage – and finding out when those answers change.

This takes things a little bit further.

In this case I’m going to scrape some data for a story about local history – the data for which is helpfully published by the Durham Mining Museum. Their homepage has a list of local mining disasters, with the date and cause of the disaster, the name and county of the colliery, the number of deaths, and links to the names and to a page about each colliery.

However, there is not enough geographical information here to map the data. That, instead, is provided on each colliery’s individual page.

So we need to go through this list of webpages, grab the location information, and pull it all together into a single list.

Finding the structure in the HTML

To do this we need to isolate which part of the homepage contains the list. If you right-click on the page to ‘view source’ and search for ‘Haig’ (the first colliery listed) we can see it’s in a table that has a beginning tag like so: <table border=0 align=center style=”font-size:10pt”>

We can use =importXML to grab the contents of the table like so:

=Importxml(“http://www.dmm.org.uk/mindex.htm”, ”//table[starts-with(@style, 'font-size:10pt')]“)

But we only want the links, so how do we grab just those instead of the whole table contents?

The answer is to add more detail to our request. If we look at the HTML that contains the link, it looks like this:

<td valign=top><a href=”http://www.dmm.org.uk/colliery/h029.htm“>Haig&nbsp;Pit</a></td>

So it’s within a <td> tag – but all the data in this table is, not surprisingly, contained within <td> tags. The key is to identify which <td> tag we want – and in this case, it’s always the fourth one in each row.

So we can add “//td[4]” (‘look for the fourth <td> tag’) to our function like so:

=Importxml(“http://www.dmm.org.uk/mindex.htm”, ”//table[starts-with(@style, 'font-size:10pt')]//td[4]“)

Now we should have a list of the collieries – but we want the actual URL of the page that is linked to with that text. That is contained within the value of the href attribute – or, put in plain language: it comes after the bit that says href=”.

So we just need to add one more bit to our function: “//@href”:

=Importxml(“http://www.dmm.org.uk/mindex.htm”, ”//table[starts-with(@style, 'font-size:10pt')]//td[4]//@href”)

So, reading from the far right inwards, this is what it says: “Grab the value of href, within the fourth <td> tag on every row, of the table that has a style value of font-size:10pt

Note: if there was only one link in every row, we wouldn’t need to include //td[4] to specify the link we needed.

Scraping data from each link in a list

Now we have a list – but we still need to scrape some information from each link in that list

Firstly, we need to identify the location of information that we need on the linked pages. Taking the first page, view source and search for ‘Sheet 89′, which are the first two words of the ‘Map Ref’ line.

The HTML code around that information looks like this:

<td valign=top>(Sheet 89) NX965176, 54° 32' 35" N, 3° 36' 0" W</td>

Looking a little further up, the table that contains this cell uses HTML like this:

<table border=0 width=”95%”>

So if we needed to scrape this information, we would write a function like this:

=importXML(“http://www.dmm.org.uk/colliery/h029.htm”, “//table[starts-with(@width, '95%')]//tr[2]//td[2]“)

…And we’d have to write it for every URL.

But because we have a list of URLs, we can do this much quicker by using cell references instead of the full URL.

So. Let’s assume that your formula was in cell C2 (as it is in this example), and the results have formed a column of links going from C2 down to C11. Now we can write a formula that looks at each URL in turn and performs a scrape on it.

In D2 then, we type the following:

=importXML(C2, “//table[starts-with(@width, '95%')]//tr[2]//td[2]“)

If you copy the cell all the way down the column, it will change the function so that it is performed on each neighbouring cell.

In fact, we could simplify things even further by putting the second part of the function in cell D1 – without the quotation marks – like so:

//table[starts-with(@width, '95%')]//tr[2]//td[2]

And then in D2 change the formula to this:

=ImportXML(C2,$D$1)

(The dollar signs keep the D1 reference the same even when the formula is copied down, while C2 will change in each cell)

Now it works – we have the data from each of 8 different pages. Almost.

Troubleshooting with =IF

The problem is that the structure of those pages is not as consistent as we thought: the scraper is producing extra cells of data for some, which knocks out the data that should be appearing there from other cells.

So I’ve used an IF formula to clean that up as follows:

In cell E2 I type the following:

=if(D2=””, ImportXML(C2,$D$1), D2)

Which says ‘If D2 is empty, then run the importXML formula again and put the results here, but if it’s not empty then copy the values across

That formula is copied down the column.

But there’s still one empty column even now, so the same formula is used again in column F:

=if(E2=””, ImportXML(C2,$D$1), E2)

A hack, but an instructive one

As I said earlier, this isn’t the best way to write a scraper, but it is a useful way to start to understand how they work, and a quick method if you don’t have huge numbers of pages to scrape. With hundreds of pages, it’s more likely you will miss problems – so watch out for inconsistent structure and data that doesn’t line up.

Scraping data from a list of webpages using Google Docs

Quite often when you’re looking for data as part of a story, that data will not be on a single page, but on a series of pages. To manually copy the data from each one – or even scrape the data individually – would take time. Here I explain a way to use Google Docs to grab the data for you.

Some basic principles

Although Google Docs is a pretty clumsy tool to use to scrape webpages, the method used is much the same as if you were writing a scraper in a programming language like Python or Ruby. For that reason, I think this is a good quick way to introduce the basics of certain types of scrapers.

Here’s how it works:

Firstly, you need a list of links to the pages containing data.

Quite often that list might be on a webpage which links to them all, but if not you should look at whether the links have any common structure, for example “http://www.country.com/data/australia&#8221; or “http://www.country.com/data/country2&#8243;. If it does, then you can generate a list by filling in the part of the URL that changes each time (in this case, the country name or number), assuming you have a list to fill it from (i.e. a list of countries, codes or simple addition).

Second, you need the destination pages to have some consistent structure to them. In other words, they should look the same (although looking the same doesn’t mean they have the same structure – more on this below).

The scraper then cycles through each link in your list, grabs particular bits of data from each linked page (because it is always in the same place), and saves them all in one place.

Scraping with Google Docs using =importXML – a case study

If you’ve not used =importXML before it’s worth catching up on my previous 2 posts How to scrape webpages and ask questions with Google Docs and =importXML and Asking questions of a webpage – and finding out when those answers change.

This takes things a little bit further.

In this case I’m going to scrape some data for a story about local history – the data for which is helpfully published by the Durham Mining Museum. Their homepage has a list of local mining disasters, with the date and cause of the disaster, the name and county of the colliery, the number of deaths, and links to the names and to a page about each colliery.

However, there is not enough geographical information here to map the data. That, instead, is provided on each colliery’s individual page.

So we need to go through this list of webpages, grab the location information, and pull it all together into a single list.

Finding the structure in the HTML

To do this we need to isolate which part of the homepage contains the list. If you right-click on the page to ‘view source’ and search for ‘Haig’ (the first colliery listed) we can see it’s in a table that has a beginning tag like so: <table border=0 align=center style=”font-size:10pt”>

We can use =importXML to grab the contents of the table like so:

=Importxml(“http://www.dmm.org.uk/mindex.htm&#8221;, “//table[starts-with(@style, 'font-size:10pt')]“)

But we only want the links, so how do we grab just those instead of the whole table contents?

The answer is to add more detail to our request. If we look at the HTML that contains the link, it looks like this:

<td valign=top><a href=”http://www.dmm.org.uk/colliery/h029.htm“>Haig&nbsp;Pit</a></td>

So it’s within a <td> tag – but all the data in this table is, not surprisingly, contained within <td> tags. The key is to identify which <td> tag we want – and in this case, it’s always the fourth one in each row.

So we can add “//td[4]” (‘look for the fourth <td> tag’) to our function like so:

=Importxml(“http://www.dmm.org.uk/mindex.htm&#8221;, “//table[starts-with(@style, 'font-size:10pt')]//td[4]“)

Now we should have a list of the collieries – but we want the actual URL of the page that is linked to with that text. That is contained within the value of the href attribute – or, put in plain language: it comes after the bit that says href=”.

So we just need to add one more bit to our function: “//@href”:

=Importxml(“http://www.dmm.org.uk/mindex.htm&#8221;, “//table[starts-with(@style, 'font-size:10pt')]//td[4]//@href”)

So, reading from the far right inwards, this is what it says: “Grab the value of href, within the fourth <td> tag on every row, of the table that has a style value of font-size:10pt

Note: if there was only one link in every row, we wouldn’t need to include //td[4] to specify the link we needed.

Scraping data from each link in a list

Now we have a list – but we still need to scrape some information from each link in that list

Firstly, we need to identify the location of information that we need on the linked pages. Taking the first page, view source and search for ‘Sheet 89′, which are the first two words of the ‘Map Ref’ line.

The HTML code around that information looks like this:

<td valign=top>(Sheet 89) NX965176, 54° 32' 35" N, 3° 36' 0" W</td>

Looking a little further up, the table that contains this cell uses HTML like this:

<table border=0 width=”95%”>

So if we needed to scrape this information, we would write a function like this:

=importXML(“http://www.dmm.org.uk/colliery/h029.htm&#8221;, “//table[starts-with(@width, '95%')]//tr[2]//td[2]“)

…And we’d have to write it for every URL.

But because we have a list of URLs, we can do this much quicker by using cell references instead of the full URL.

So. Let’s assume that your formula was in cell C2 (as it is in this example), and the results have formed a column of links going from C2 down to C11. Now we can write a formula that looks at each URL in turn and performs a scrape on it.

In D2 then, we type the following:

=importXML(C2, “//table[starts-with(@width, '95%')]//tr[2]//td[2]“)

If you copy the cell all the way down the column, it will change the function so that it is performed on each neighbouring cell.

In fact, we could simplify things even further by putting the second part of the function in cell D1 – without the quotation marks – like so:

//table[starts-with(@width, '95%')]//tr[2]//td[2]

And then in D2 change the formula to this:

=ImportXML(C2,$D$1)

(The dollar signs keep the D1 reference the same even when the formula is copied down, while C2 will change in each cell)

Now it works – we have the data from each of 8 different pages. Almost.

Troubleshooting with =IF

The problem is that the structure of those pages is not as consistent as we thought: the scraper is producing extra cells of data for some, which knocks out the data that should be appearing there from other cells.

So I’ve used an IF formula to clean that up as follows:

In cell E2 I type the following:

=if(D2=””, ImportXML(C2,$D$1), D2)

Which says ‘If D2 is empty, then run the importXML formula again and put the results here, but if it’s not empty then copy the values across

That formula is copied down the column.

But there’s still one empty column even now, so the same formula is used again in column F:

=if(E2=””, ImportXML(C2,$D$1), E2)

A hack, but an instructive one

As I said earlier, this isn’t the best way to write a scraper, but it is a useful way to start to understand how they work, and a quick method if you don’t have huge numbers of pages to scrape. With hundreds of pages, it’s more likely you will miss problems – so watch out for inconsistent structure and data that doesn’t line up.

How to use the CableSearch API to quickly reference names against Wikileaks cables (SFTW)

Cablesearch logo

CableSearch is a neat project by the European Centre for Computer Assisted Research and VVOJ (the Dutch-Flemish association for investigative journalists) which aims to make it easier for journalists to interrogate the Wikileaks cables. Although it’s been around for some time, I’ve only just noticed the site’s API, so I thought I’d show how such an API can be useful as a way to draw on such data sources to complement data of your own. Continue reading

SFTW: How to scrape webpages and ask questions with Google Docs and =importXML

XML puzzle cube
Image by dullhunk on Flickr

Here’s another Something for the Weekend post. Last week I wrote a post on how to use the =importFeed formula in Google Docs spreadsheets to pull an RSS feed (or part of one) into a spreadsheet, and split it into columns. Another formula which performs a similar function more powerfully is =importXML.

There are at least 2 distinct journalistic uses for =importXML:

  1. You have found information that is only available in XML format and need to put it into a standard spreadsheet to interrogate it or combine it with other data.
  2. You want to extract some information from a webpage – perhaps on a regular basis – and put that in a structured format (a spreadsheet) so you can more easily ask questions of it.

The first task is the easiest, so I’ll explain how to do that in this post. I’ll use a separate post to explain the latter.

Converting an XML feed into a table

If you have some information in XML format it helps if you have some understanding of how XML is structured. A backgrounder on how to understand XML is covered in this post explaining XML for journalists.

It also helps if you are using a browser which is good at displaying XML pages: Chrome, for example, not only staggers and indents different pieces of information, but also allows you to expand or collapse parts of that, and colours elements, values and attributes (which we’ll come on to below) differently.

Say, for example, you wanted a spreadsheet of UK council data, including latitude, longitude, CIPFA code, and so on – and you found the data, but it was in XML format at a page like this: http://openlylocal.com/councils/all.xml

To pull that into a neatly structured spreadsheet in Google Docs, type the following into the cell where you want the import to begin (try typing in cell A2, leaving the first row free for you to add column headers):

=ImportXML(“http://openlylocal.com/councils/all.xml”, ”//council”)

The formula (or, more accurately, function) needs two pieces of information, which are contained in the parentheses and separated by a comma: a web address (URL), and a query. Or, put another way:

=importXML(“theURLinQuotationMarks”, “theBitWithinTheURLthatYouWant”)

The URL is relatively easy – it is the address of the XML file you are reading (it should end in .xml). The query needs some further explanation.

The query tells Google Docs which bit of the XML you want to pull out. It uses a language called XPath – but don’t worry, you will only need to note down a few queries for most purposes.

Here’s an example of part of that XML file shown in the Chrome browser:

XML from OpenlyLocal

The indentation and triangles indicate the way the data is structured. So, the <councils> tag contains at least one item called <council> (if you scrolled down, or clicked on the triangle to collapse <council> you would see there are a few hundred).

And each <council> contains an <address>, <authority-type>, and many other pieces of information.

If you wanted to grab every <council> from this XML file, then, you use the query “//council” as shown above. Think of the // as a replacement for the < in a tag – you are saying: ‘grab the contents of every item that begins <council>’.

You’ll notice that in your spreadsheet where you have typed the formula above, it gathers the contents (called a value) of each tag within <council>, each tag’s value going into their own column – giving you dozens of columns.

You can continue this logic to look for tags within tags. For example, if you wanted to grab the <name> value from within each <council> tag, you could use:

=ImportXML(“http://openlylocal.com/councils/all.xml”, ”//council//name”)

You would then only have one column, containing the names of all the councils – if that’s all you wanted. You could of course adapt the formula again in cell B2 to pull another piece of information. However, you may end up with a mismatch of data where that information is missing – so it’s always better to grab all the XML once, then clean it up on a copy.

If the XML is more complex then you can ask more complex questions – which I’ll cover in the second part of this post. You can also put the URL and/or query in other cells to simplify matters, e.g.

=ImportXML(A1, B1)

Where cell A1 contains http://openlylocal.com/councils/all.xml and B1 contains //council (note the lack of quotation marks). You then only need to change the contents of A1 or B1 to change the results, rather than having to edit the formula directly)

If you’ve any other examples, ideas or corrections, let me know. Meanwhile, I’ve published an example spreadsheet demonstrating all the above techniques here.

 

SFTW: How to scrape webpages and ask questions with Google Docs and =importXML

XML puzzle cube

Image by dullhunk on Flickr

Here’s another Something for the Weekend post. Last week I wrote a post on how to use the =importFeed formula in Google Docs spreadsheets to pull an RSS feed (or part of one) into a spreadsheet, and split it into columns. Another formula which performs a similar function more powerfully is =importXML.

There are at least 2 distinct journalistic uses for =importXML:

  1. You have found information that is only available in XML format and need to put it into a standard spreadsheet to interrogate it or combine it with other data.
  2. You want to extract some information from a webpage – perhaps on a regular basis – and put that in a structured format (a spreadsheet) so you can more easily ask questions of it.

The first task is the easiest, so I’ll explain how to do that in this post. I’ll use a separate post to explain the latter. Continue reading

SFTW: How to grab useful political data with the They Work For You API

They Work For You

It’s been over 2 years since I stopped doing the ‘Something for the Weekend’ series. I thought I would revive it with a tutorial on They Work For You and Google Refine…

 

If you want to add political context to a spreadsheet – say you need to know what political parties a list of constituencies voted for, or the MPs for those constituencies – the They Work For You API can save you hours of fiddling – if you know how to use it. Continue reading

SFTW: How to grab useful political data with the They Work For You API

They Work For You

It’s been over 2 years since I stopped doing the ‘Something for the Weekend’ series. I thought I would revive it with a tutorial on They Work For You and Google Refine…

If you want to add political context to a spreadsheet – say you need to know what political parties a list of constituencies voted for, or the MPs for those constituencies – the They Work For You API can save you hours of fiddling – if you know how to use it.

An API is – for the purposes of journalists – a way of asking questions for reams of data. For example, you can use an API to ask “What constituency is each of these postcodes in?” or “When did these politicians enter office?” or even “Can you show me an image of these people?”

The They Work For You API will give answers to a range of UK political questions on subjects including Lords, MLAs (Members of the Legislative Assembly in Northern Ireland), MPs, MSPs (Members of the Scottish Parliament), select committees, debates, written answers, statements and constituencies.

When you combine that API with Google Refine you can fill a whole spreadsheet with additional political data, allowing you to answer questions you might otherwise not be able to.

I’ve written before on how to use Google Refine to pull data into a spreadsheet from the Google Maps API and the UK Postcodes API, but this post takes things a bit further because the They Work For You API requires something called a ‘key’. This is quite common with APIs so knowing how to use them is – well – key. If you need extra help, try those tutorials first. Continue reading

Quote Twitter conversations with QuoteURL (Something for the Weekend #15)

Following on from the previous Something for the Weekend, Twickie, which allows you to collect responses to a question posted on Twitter, this tool allows you to present a conversation – with impressive control. 

QuoteURL allows you to drag and drop (or copy and paste) Twitter tweet URLs to reconstruct a conversation. Continue reading