Tag Archives: google refine

SFTW: Scraping data with Google Refine

For the first Something For The Weekend of 2012 I want to tackle a common problem when you’re trying to scrape a collection of webpage: they have some sort of structure in their URL like this, where part of the URL refers to the name or code of an entity:

  1. http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scottishschoolsonline/schools/freemealentitlement.asp?iSchoolID=5237521
  2. http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scottishschoolsonline/schools/freemealentitlement.asp?iSchoolID=5237629
  3. http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scottishschoolsonline/schools/freemealentitlement.asp?iSchoolID=5237823

In this instance, you can see that the URL is identical apart from a 7 digit code at the end: the ID of the school the data refers to.

There are a number of ways you could scrape this data. You could use Google Docs and the =importXML formula, but Google Docs will only let you use this 50 times on any one spreadsheet (you could copy the results and select Edit > Paste Special > Values Only and then use the formula a further 50 times if it’s not too many – here’s one I prepared earlier).

And you could use Scraperwiki to write a powerful scraper – but you need to understand enough coding to do so quickly (here’s a demo I prepared earlier).

A middle option is to use Google Refine, and here’s how you do it.

Assembling the ingredients

With the basic URL structure identified, we already have half of our ingredients. What we need  next is a list of the ID codes that we’re going to use to complete each URL.

An advanced search for “list seed number scottish schools filetype:xls” brings up a link to this spreadsheet (XLS) which gives us just that.

The spreadsheet will need editing: remove any rows you don’t need. This will reduce the time that the scraper will take in going through them. For example, if you’re only interested in one local authority, or one type of school, sort your spreadsheet so that you can delete those above or below them.

Now to combine  the ID codes with the base URL.

Bringing your data into Google Refine

Open Google Refine and create a new project with the edited spreadsheet containing the school IDs.

At the top of the school ID column click on the drop-down menu and select Edit column > Add column based on this column…

In the New column name box at the top call this ‘URL’.

In the Expression box type the following piece of GREL (Google Refine Expression Language):

http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/scottishschoolsonline/schools/freemealentitlement.asp?iSchoolID=”+value

(Type in the quotation marks yourself – if you’re copying them from a webpage you may have problems)

The ‘value’ bit means the value of each cell in the column you just selected. The plus sign adds it to the end of the URL in quotes.

In the Preview window you should see the results – you can even copy one of the resulting URLs and paste it into a browser to check it works. (On one occasion Google Refine added .0 to the end of the ID number, ruining the URL. You can solve this by changing ‘value’ to value.substring(0,7) – this extracts the first 7 characters of the ID number, omitting the ‘.0’) UPDATE: in the comment Thad suggests “perhaps, upon import of your spreadsheet of IDs, you forgot to uncheck the importer option to Parse as numbers?”

Click OK if you’re happy, and you should have a new column with a URL for each school ID.

Grabbing the HTML for each page

Now click on the top of this new URL column and select Edit column > Add column by fetching URLs…

In the New column name box at the top call this ‘HTML’.

All you need in the Expression window is ‘value’, so leave that as it is.

Click OK.

Google Refine will now go to each of those URLs and fetch the HTML contents. As we have a couple thousand rows here, this will take a long time – hours, depending on the speed of your computer and internet connection (it may not work at all if either isn’t very fast). So leave it running and come back to it later.

Extracting data from the raw HTML with parseHTML

When it’s finished you’ll have another column where each cell is a bunch of HTML. You’ll need to create a new column to extract what you need from that, and you’ll also need some GREL expressions explained here.

First you need to identify what data you want, and where it is in the HTML. To find it, right-click on one of the webpages containing the data, and search for a key phrase or figure that you want to extract. Around that data you want to find a HTML tag like <table class=”destinations”> or <div id=”statistics”>. Keep that open in another window while you tweak the expression we come onto below…

Back in Google Refine, at the top of the HTML column click on the drop-down menu and select Edit column > Add column based on this column…

In the New column name box at the top give it a name describing the data you’re going to pull out.

In the Expression box type the following piece of GREL (Google Refine Expression Language):

value.parseHtml().select(“table.destinations”)[0].select(“tr”).toString()

(Again, type the quotation marks yourself rather than copying them from here or you may have problems)

I’ll break down what this is doing:

value.parseHtml()

parse the HTML in each cell (value)

.select(“table.destinations”)

find a table with a class (.) of “destinations” (in the source HTML this reads <table class=”destinations”>. If it was <div id=”statistics”> then you would write .select(“div#statistics”) – the hash sign representing an ‘id’ and the full stop representing a ‘class’.

[0]

This zero in square brackets tells Refine to only grab the first table – a number 1 would indicate the second, and so on. This is because numbering (“indexing”) generally begins with zero in programming.

.select(“tr”)

Now, within that table, find anything within the tag <tr>

.toString()

And convert the results into a string of text.

The results of that expression in the Preview window should look something like this:

<tr> <th></th> <th>Abbotswell School</th> <th>Aberdeen City</th> <th>Scotland</th> </tr> <tr> <th>Percentage of pupils</th> <td>25.5%</td> <td>16.3%</td> <td>22.6%</td> </tr>

This is still HTML, but a much smaller and manageable chunk. You could, if you chose, now export it as a spreadsheet file and use various techniques to get rid of the tags (Find and Replace, for example) and split the data into separate columns (the =SPLIT formula, for example).

Or you could further tweak your GREL code in Refine to drill further into your data, like so:

value.parseHtml().select(“table.destinations”)[0].select(“td”)[0].toString()

Which would give you this:

<td>25.5%</td>

Or you can add the .substring function to strip out the HTML like so (assuming that the data you want is always 5 characters long):

value.parseHtml().select(“table.destinations”)[0].select(“td”)[0].toString().substring(5,10)

When you’re happy, click OK and you should have a new column for that data. You can repeat this for every piece of data you want to extract into a new column.

Then click Export in the upper right corner and save as a CSV or Excel file.

More on how this data was used on Help Me Investigate Education.

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Social Interest Positioning – Visualising Facebook Friends’ Likes With Data Grabbed Using Google Refine

What do my Facebook friends have in common in terms of the things they have Liked, or in terms of their music or movie preferences? (And does this say anything about me?!) Here’s a recipe for visualising that data…

After discovering via Martin Hawksey that the recent (December, 2011) 2.5 release of Google Refine allows you to import JSON and XML feeds to bootstrap a new project, I wondered whether it would be able to pull in data from the Facebook API if I was logged in to Facebook (Google Refine does run in the browser after all…)

Looking through the Facebook API documentation whilst logged in to Facebook, it’s easy enough to find exemplar links to things like your friends list (https://graph.facebook.com/me/friends?access_token=A_LONG_JUMBLE_OF_LETTERS) or the list of likes someone has made (https://graph.facebook.com/me/likes?access_token=A_LONG_JUMBLE_OF_LETTERS); replacing me with the Facebook ID of one of your friends should pull down a list of their friends, or likes, etc.

(Note that validity of the access token is time limited, so you can’t grab a copy of the access token and hope to use the same one day after day.)

Grabbing the link to your friends on Facebook is simply a case of opening a new project, choosing to get the data from a Web Address, and then pasting in the friends list URL:

Google Refine - import Facebook friends list

Click on next, and Google Refine will download the data, which you can then parse as a JSON file, and from which you can identify individual record types:

Google Refine - import Facebook friends

If you click the highlighted selection, you should see the data that will be used to create your project:

Google Refine - click to view the data

You can now click on Create Project to start working on the data – the first thing I do is tidy up the column names:

Google Refine - rename columns

We can now work some magic – such as pulling in the Likes our friends have made. To do this, we need to create the URL for each friend’s Likes using their Facebook ID, and then pull the data down. We can use Google Refine to harvest this data for us by creating a new column containing the data pulled in from a URL built around the value of each cell in another column:

Google Refine - new column from URL

The Likes URL has the form https://graph.facebook.com/me/likes?access_token=A_LONG_JUMBLE_OF_LETTERS which we’ll tinker with as follows:

Google Refine - crafting URLs for new column creation

The throttle control tells Refine how often to make each call. I set this to 500ms (that is, half a second), so it takes a few minutes to pull in my couple of hundred or so friends (I don’t use Facebook a lot;-). I’m not sure what limit the Facebook API is happy with (if you hit it too fast (i.e. set the throttle time too low), you may find the Facebook API stops returning data to you for a cooling down period…)?

Having imported the data, you should find a new column:

Google Refine - new data imported

At this point, it is possible to generate a new column from each of the records/Likes in the imported data… in theory (or maybe not..). I found this caused Refine to hang though, so instead I exprted the data using the default Templating… export format, which produces some sort of JSON output…

I then used this Python script to generate a two column data file where each row contained a (new) unique identifier for each friend and the name of one of their likes:

import simplejson,csv

writer=csv.writer(open('fbliketest.csv','wb+'),quoting=csv.QUOTE_ALL)

fn='my-fb-friends-likes.txt'

data = simplejson.load(open(fn,'r'))
id=0
for d in data['rows']:
	id=id+1
	#'interests' is the column name containing the Likes data
	interests=simplejson.loads(d['interests'])
	for i in interests['data']:
		print str(id),i['name'],i['category']
		writer.writerow([str(id),i['name'].encode('ascii','ignore')])

[I think this R script, in answer to a related @mhawksey Stack Overflow question, also does the trick: R: Building a list from matching values in a data.frame]

I could then import this data into Gephi and use it to generate a network diagram of what they commonly liked:

Sketching common likes amongst my facebook friends

Rather than returning Likes, I could equally have pulled back lists of the movies, music or books they like, their own friends lists (permissions settings allowing), etc etc, and then generated friends’ interest maps on that basis.

[See also: Getting Started With The Gephi Network Visualisation App – My Facebook Network, Part I and how to visualise Google+ networks]

PS dropping out of Google Refine and into a Python script is a bit clunky, I have to admit. What would be nice would be to be able to do something like a “create new rows with new column from column” pattern that would let you set up an iterator through the contents of each of the cells in the column you want to generate the new column from, and for each pass of the iterator: 1) duplicate the original data row to create a new row; 2) add a new column; 3) populate the cell with the contents of the current iteration state. Or something like that…

PPS Related to the PS request, there is a sort of related feature in the 2.5 release of Google Refine that lets you merge data from across rows with a common key into a newly shaped data set: Key/value Columnize. Seeing this, it got me wondering what a fusion of Google Refine and RStudio might be like (or even just R support within Google Refine?)

PPPS this could be interesting – looks like you can test to see if a friendship exists given two Facebook user IDs.

How to use the CableSearch API to quickly reference names against Wikileaks cables (SFTW)

Cablesearch logo

CableSearch is a neat project by the European Centre for Computer Assisted Research and VVOJ (the Dutch-Flemish association for investigative journalists) which aims to make it easier for journalists to interrogate the Wikileaks cables. Although it’s been around for some time, I’ve only just noticed the site’s API, so I thought I’d show how such an API can be useful as a way to draw on such data sources to complement data of your own. Continue reading

How to: convert easting/northing into lat/long for an interactive map

A map generated in Google Fusion Tables from a geocoded dataset
A map generated in Google Fusion Tables from a dataset cleaned using these methods

Google Fusion Tables is great for creating interactive maps from a spreadsheet – but it isn’t too keen on easting and northing. That can be a problem as many government and local authority datasets use easting and northing to describe the geographical position of things – for example, speed cameras.

So you’ll need a way to convert easting and northing into something that Fusion Tables does like – such as latitude and longitude.

Here’s how I did it – quickly. Continue reading

How to: convert easting/northing into lat/long for an interactive map

A map generated in Google Fusion Tables from a geocoded dataset

A map generated in Google Fusion Tables from a dataset cleaned using these methods

Google Fusion Tables is great for creating interactive maps from a spreadsheet – but it isn’t too keen on easting and northing. That can be a problem as many government and local authority datasets use easting and northing to describe the geographical position of things – for example, speed cameras.

So you’ll need a way to convert easting and northing into something that Fusion Tables does like – such as latitude and longitude.

Here’s how I did it – quickly. Continue reading

SFTW: How to grab useful political data with the They Work For You API

They Work For You

It’s been over 2 years since I stopped doing the ‘Something for the Weekend’ series. I thought I would revive it with a tutorial on They Work For You and Google Refine…

 

If you want to add political context to a spreadsheet – say you need to know what political parties a list of constituencies voted for, or the MPs for those constituencies – the They Work For You API can save you hours of fiddling – if you know how to use it. Continue reading

SFTW: How to grab useful political data with the They Work For You API

They Work For You

It’s been over 2 years since I stopped doing the ‘Something for the Weekend’ series. I thought I would revive it with a tutorial on They Work For You and Google Refine…

If you want to add political context to a spreadsheet – say you need to know what political parties a list of constituencies voted for, or the MPs for those constituencies – the They Work For You API can save you hours of fiddling – if you know how to use it.

An API is – for the purposes of journalists – a way of asking questions for reams of data. For example, you can use an API to ask “What constituency is each of these postcodes in?” or “When did these politicians enter office?” or even “Can you show me an image of these people?”

The They Work For You API will give answers to a range of UK political questions on subjects including Lords, MLAs (Members of the Legislative Assembly in Northern Ireland), MPs, MSPs (Members of the Scottish Parliament), select committees, debates, written answers, statements and constituencies.

When you combine that API with Google Refine you can fill a whole spreadsheet with additional political data, allowing you to answer questions you might otherwise not be able to.

I’ve written before on how to use Google Refine to pull data into a spreadsheet from the Google Maps API and the UK Postcodes API, but this post takes things a bit further because the They Work For You API requires something called a ‘key’. This is quite common with APIs so knowing how to use them is – well – key. If you need extra help, try those tutorials first. Continue reading