Tag Archives: onlinejournalismblog

Interest Differencing: Folk Commonly Followed by Tweeting MPs of Different Parties

Earlier this year I doodled a recipe for comparing the folk commonly followed by users of a couple of BBC programme hashtags (Social Media Interest Maps of Newsnight and BBCQT Twitterers). Prompted in part by a tweet from Michael Smethurst/@fantasticlife about generating an ESP map for UK politicians (something I’ve also doodled before – Sketching the Structure of the UK Political Media Twittersphere) I drew on the @tweetminster Twitter lists of MPs by party to generate lists of folk commonly followed by the MPs of each party.

Using the R wordcloud library commonality and comparison clouds, we can get a visual impression of folk commonly followed in significant numbers by all the MPs of the three main parties, as well as the folk the MPs of each party follow significantly and differentially to the other parties:

There’s still a fair bit to do making the methodology robust (for example, being able to cope with comparing folk commonly followed by different sets of users where the size of the set differs to a significant extent (for example, there is a large difference between the number of tweeting Conservative and LibDem MPs). I’ve also noticed that repeatedly running the comparison.cloud code turns up different clouds, so there’s some element of randomness in there. I guess this just adds to the “sketchy” nature of the visualisation; or maybe hints at a technique akin to the way a photogrpaher will take multiple shots of a subject before picking one or two to illustrate something in particular. Which is to say: the “truthiness” of the image reflects the message that you are trying to communicate. The visualisation in this case exposes a partial truth (which is to say, no absolute truth), or particular perspective about the way different groups differentially follow folk on Twitter. A couple of other quirks I’ve noticed about the comparison.cloud as currently defined: firstly, very highly represented friends are sized too large to appear in the cloud (which is why very commonly followed folk across all sets – the people that appear in the commonality cloud – tend not to appear) – there must be a better way of handling this? Secondly, if one person is represented so highly in one group that they don’t appear in the cloud for that group, they may appear elsewhere in the cloud. (So for example, I tried plotting clouds for folk commonly followed by a sample of the followers of @davegorman, as well as the people commonly followed by the friends of @davegorman – and @davegorman appeared as a small label in the friends part of the comparison.cloud (notwithstanding the fact that all the followers of @davegorman follow @davegorman, but not all his friends do… What might make more sense would be to suppress the display of a label in the colour of a particular group if that label has a higher representation in any of the other groups (and isn’t displayed because it would be too large)).

That said, as a quick sketch, I think there’s some information being revealed there (the coloured comparison.cloud seems to pull out some names that make sense as commonly followed folk peculiar to each party…). I guess way forward is to start picking apart the comparison.cloud code, another is to explore a few more comparison sets? Suggestions welcome as to what they might be…:-)

PS by the by, I notice via the Guardian datablog (Church vs beer: using Twitter to map regional differences in US culture) another Twitter based comparison project – Church or Beer? Americans on Twitter – which looked at geo-coded Tweets over a particular time period on a US state-wide basis and counted the relative occurrence of Tweets mentioning “church” or “beer”…

Advertisements

F1 Championship Points as a d3.js Powered Sankey Diagram

d3.js crossed my path a couple of times yesterday: firstly, in the form of an enquiry about whether I’d be interested in writing a book on d3.js (I’m not sure I’m qualified: as I responded, I’m more of a script kiddie who sees things I can reuse, rather than have any understanding at all about how d3.js does what it does…); secondly, via a link to d3.js creator Mike Bostock’s new demo of Sankey diagrams built using d3.js:

Hmm… Sankey diagrams are good for visualising flow, so to get to grips myself with seeing if I could plug-and-play with the component, I needed an appropriate data set. F1 related data is usually my first thought as far as testbed data goes (no confidences to break, the STEM/innovation outreach/tech transfer context, etc etc) so what things flow in F1? What quantities are conserved whilst being passed between different classes of entity? How about points… points are awarded on a per race basis to drivers who are members of teams. It’s also a championship sport, run over several races. The individual Driver Championship is a competition between drivers to accumulate the most points over the course of the season, and the Constructor Chanmpionship is a battle between teams. Which suggests to me that a Sankey plot of points from races to drivers and then constructors might work?

So what do we need to do? First up, look at the source code for the demo using View Source. Here’s the relevant bit:

Data is being pulled in from a relatively addressed file, energy.json. Let’s see what it looks like:

Okay – a node list and an edge list. From previous experience, I know that there is a d3.js JSON exporter built into the Python networkx library, so maybe we can generate the data file from a network representation of the data in networkx?

Here we are: node_link_data(G) “[r]eturn data in node-link format that is suitable for JSON serialization and use in Javascript documents.”

Next step – getting the data. I’ve already done a demo of visualising F1 championship points sourced from the Ergast motor racing API as a treemap (but not blogged it? Hmmm…. must fix that) that draws on a JSON data feed constructed from data extracted from the Ergast API so I can clone that code and use it as the basis for constructing a directed graph that represents points allocations: race nodes are linked to driver nodes with edges weighted by points scored in that race, and driver nodes are connected to teams by edges weighted according to the total number of points the driver has earned so far. (Hmm, that gives me an idea for a better way of coding the weight for that edge…)

I don’t have time to blog the how to of the code right now – train and boat to catch – but will do so later. If you want to look at the code, it’s here: Ergast Championship nodelist. And here’s the result – F1 Chanpionship 2012 Points as a Sankey Diagram:

See what I mean about being a cut and paste script kiddie?!;-)

Inter-Council Payments and the Google Fusion Tables Network Graph

One of the great things about aggregating local spending data from different councils in the same place – such as on OpenlyLocal – is that you can start to explore structural relations in the way different public bodies of a similar type spend money with each other.

On the local spend with corporates scraper on Scraperwiki, which I set up to scrape how different councils spent money with particular suppliers, I realised I could also use the scraper to search for how councils spent money with other councils, by searching for suppliers containing phrases such as “district council” or “town council”. (We could also generate views to to see how councils wre spending money with different police authorities, for example.)

(The OpenlyLocal API doesn’t seem to work with the search, so I scraped the search results HTML pages instead. Results are paged, with 30 results per page, and what seems like a maximum of 1500 (50 pages) of results possible.)

The publicmesh table on the scraper captures spend going to a range of councils (not parish councils) from other councils. I also uploaded the data to Google Fusion tables (public mesh spending data), and then started to explore it using the new network graph view (via the Experiment menu). So for example, we can get a quick view over how the various county councils make payments to each other:

Hovering over a node highlights the other nodes its connected to (though it would be good if the text labels from the connected nodes were highlighted and labels for unconnected nodes were greyed out?)

(I think a Graphviz visualisation would actually be better, eg using Canviz, because it can clearly show edges from A to B as well as B to A…)

As with many exploratory visualisations, this view helps us identify some more specific questions we might want to ask of the data, rather than presenting a “finished product”.

As well as the experimental network graph view, I also noticed there’s a new Experimental View for Google Fusion Tables. As well as the normal tabular view, we also get a record view, and (where geo data is identified?) a map view:

What I’d quite like to see is a merging of map and network graph views…

One thing I noticed whilst playing with Google Fusion Tables is that getting different aggregate views is rather clunky and relies on column order in the table. So for example, here’s an aggregated view of how different county councils supply other councils:

In order to aggregate by supplied council, we need to reorder the columns (the aggregate view aggregates columns as thet appear from left to right in the table view). From the Edit column, Modify Table:

(In my browser, I then had to reload the page for the updated schema to be reflected in the view). Then we can get the count aggregation:

It would be so much easier if the aggregation view allowed you to order the columns there…

PS no time to blog this properly right now, but there are a couple of new javascript libraries that are worth mentioning in the datawrangling context.

In part coming out of the Guardian stable, Misoproject is “an open source toolkit designed to expedite the creation of high-quality interactive storytelling and data visualisation content”. The initial dataset library provides a set of routines for: loading data into the browser from a variety of sources (CSV, Google spreadsheets, JSON), including regular polling; creating and managing data tables and views of those tables within the browser, including column operations such as grouping, statistical operations (min, max, mean, moving average etc); playing nicely with a variety of client side graphics libraries (eg d3.js, Highcharts, Rickshaw and other JQuery graphics plugins).

Recline.js is a library from Max Ogden and the Open Knowledge Foundation that if its name is anything to go by is positioning itself as an alternative (or complement?) to Google Refine. To my mind though, it’s more akin to a Google Fusion Tables style user interface (“classic” version) wherever you need it, via a Javascript library. The data explorer allows you to import and preview CSV, Excel, Google Spreadsheet and ElasticSearch data from a URL, as well as via file upload (so for example, you can try it with the public spend mesh data CSV from Scraperwiki). Data can be sorted, filtered and viewed by facet, and there’s a set of integrated graphical tools for previewing and displaying data too. Refine.js views can also be shared and embedded, which makes this an ideal tool for data publishers to embed in their sites as a way of facilitating engagement with data on-site, as I expect we’ll see on the Data Hub before too long.

More reviews of these two libraries later…

PPS These are also worth a look in respect of generating visualisations based on data stored in Google spreadsheets: DataWrapper and Freedive (like my old Guardian Datastore explorer, but done properly… Wizard led UI that helps you create your own searchable and embeddable database view direct from a Google Spreadsheet).

Working With Excel Spreadsheet Files Without Using Excel…

One of the most frequently encountered ways of sharing small datasets is in the form of Excel spreadsheet (.xls) files, notwithstanding all that can be said In Praise of CSV😉 The natural application for opening these files is Microsoft Excel, but what if you don’t have a copy of Excel available?

There are other desktop office suites that can open spreadsheet files, of course, such as Open Office. As long as they’re not too big, spreadsheet files can also be uploaded to and then opened using a variety of online services, such as Google Spreadsheets, Google Fusion Tables or Zoho Sheet. But spreadsheet applications aren’t the only data wrangling tools that can be used to open xls files… Here are a couple more that should be part of every data wrangler’s toolbox…

(If you want to play along, the file I’m going to play with is a spreadsheet containing the names and locations of GP practices in England. The file can be found on the NHS Indicators portal – here’s the actual spreadsheet.)

Firstly, Google Refine. Google Refine is a cross-platform, browser based tool that helps with many of the chores relating to getting a dataset tidied up so that you can use it elsewhere, as well as helping out with data reconcilation or augmenting rows with annotations provided by separate online services. You can also use it as a quick-and-dirty tool for opening an xls spreadsheet from a URL, knocking the data into shape, and dumping it to a CSV file that you can use elsewhere. To start with, choose the option to create a project by importing a file from a web address (the XLS spreadsheet URL):

Once loaded, you get a preview view..

You can tidy up the data that you are going to use in your project via the preview panel. In this case, I’m going to ignore the leading lines and just generate a dataset that I can export directly as a CSV file once I’ve got the data into my project.

If I then create a project around this dataset, I can trivially export it again using a format of my own preference:

So that’s one way of using Google Refine as a simple file converter service that allows you to preview and to a certain extent shape the data in XLS spreadsheet, as well as converting it to other file types.

The second approach I want to mention is to use a really handy Python software library (xlrd – Excel Reader) in Scraperwiki. The Scraperwiki tutorial on Excel scraping gives a great example of how to get started, which I cribbed wholesale to produce the following snippet.

import scraperwiki
import xlrd

#cribbing https://scraperwiki.com/docs/python/python_excel_guide/
def cellval(cell):
    if cell.ctype == xlrd.XL_CELL_EMPTY:    return None
    return cell.value

def dropper(table):
    if table!='':
        try: scraperwiki.sqlite.execute('drop table "'+table+'"')
        except: pass

def reGrabber():
    #dropper('GPpracticeLookup')
    url = 'https://indicators.ic.nhs.uk/download/GP%20Practice%20data/summaries/demography/Practice%20Addresses%20Final.xls'
    xlbin = scraperwiki.scrape(url)
    book = xlrd.open_workbook(file_contents=xlbin)

    sheet = book.sheet_by_index(0)        

    keys = sheet.row_values(8)           
    keys[1] = keys[1].replace('.', '')
    print keys

    for rownumber in range(9, sheet.nrows):           
        # create dictionary of the row values
        values = [ cellval(c) for c in sheet.row(rownumber) ]
        data = dict(zip(keys, values))
        #print data
        scraperwiki.sqlite.save(table_name='GPpracticeLookup',unique_keys=['Practice Code'], data=data)

#Uncomment the next line if you want to regrab the data from the original spreadsheet
reGrabber()

You can find my scraper here: UK NHS GP Practices Lookup. What’s handy about this approach is that having scraped the spreadsheet data into a Scraperwiki database, I can now query it as database data via the Scraperwiki API.

(Note that the Google Visualisation API query language would also let me treat the spreadsheet data as a database if I uploaded it to Google Spreadsheets.)

So, if you find yourself with an Excel spreadsheet, but no Microsoft Office to hand, fear not… There are plenty of other tools other there you can appropriate to help you get the data out of the file and into a form you can work with:-)

PS R is capable of importing Excel files, I think, but the libraries I found don’t seem to compile onto Max OS/X?

PPS ***DATA HEALTH WARNING*** I haven’t done much testing of either of these approaches using spreadsheets containing multiple workbooks, complex linked formulae or macros. They may or may not be appropriate in such cases… but for simple spreadsheets, they’re fine…

Exploring GP Practice Level Prescribing Data

Some posts I get a little bit twitchy about writing. Accessing and Visualising Sentencing Data for Local Courts was one, and this is another: exploring practice level prescription data (get the data).

One of the reasons it feels “dangerous” is that the rationale behind the post is to demonstrate some of the mechanics of engaging with the data at a context free level, devoid of any real consideration about what the data represents, whilst using a data set that does have meaning, the interpretation of which can be used as the basis of making judgements about various geographical areas, for example.

The datasets that are the focus of this post relate to GP practice level prescription data. One datafile lists GP practices (I’ve uploaded this to Google Fusion tables), and includes practice name, identifier, and address. I geocoded the Google Fusion tables version of the data according to practice postcode, so we can see on a map how the practices are distributed:

(There are a few errors in the geocoding that could probably be fixed by editing the correspond data rows, and adding something like “, UK” to the postcode. (I’ve often thought it would be handy if you could force Google Fusion Table’s geocoder to only return points within a particular territory…))

The prescription data includes data at the level of item counts by drug name or prescription item per month for each practice. Trivially, we might do something like take the count of methadone prescriptions for each practice, and plot a map sizing points at the location of each practice by the number of methadone prescriptions by that practice. All well and good if we bear in mind the fact the the data hasn’t been normalised by the size of the practice, doesn’t take into account the area over which the patients are distributed, doesn’t take into account the demographics of the practices constituency (or recognise that a particular practice may host a special clinic, or the sample month may have included an event that drew in a large transient population with a particular condition, or whatever). A good example to illustrate this taken from another context might be “murder density” in London. It wouldn’t surprise me if somewhere like Russell Square came out as a hot spot – not because there are lots of murders there, but because a bomb went off on a single occasion killing multiple people… Another example of “crime hot spots” might well be courts or police stations, places that end up being used as default/placeholder locations if the actual location of crime isn’t known. And so on.

The analyst responsible for creating quick and dirty sketch maps will hopefully be mindful of the factors that haven’t been addressed in the construction of a sketch, and will consequently treat with suspicion any result unless they’ve satisfied themselves that various factors have been taken into account, or discount particular results that are not the current focus of the question they are asking themselves of the data in a particular way.

So when it comes to producing a post like this looking at demonstrating some practical skills, care needs to be taken not to produce charts or maps that appear to say one thing when indeed they say nothing… So bear that in mind: this post isn’t about how to generate statistically meaningful charts and tables; it’s about mechanics of getting rows of data out of big files and into a form we can start to try to make sense of them

Another reason I’m a little twitchy about this post relates to describing certain skills in an open and searchable/publicly discoverable forum. (This is one reason why folk often demonstrate core skills on “safe” datasets or randomly generated data files.) In the post Googling Nasties and Oopses on University and Public Sector Websites, a commenter asked: “is it really ethical to post that information?” in the context of an example showing how to search for confidential spreadsheet information using a web search engine. I could imagine a similar charge being leveled at a post that describes certain sorts of data wrangling skills. Maybe some areas of knowledge should be limited to the priesthood..?

To mitigate against any risks of revealing things best left undiscovered, I could draw on the NHS Information Centre’s Evaluation and impact assessment – proposal to publish practice-level prescribing data[PDF] as well as the risks acknowledged by the recent National Audit Office report on Implementing transparency (risks to privacy, of fraud, and other possible unintended consequences). But I won’t, for now…. (dangerrrrrroussssssssss…;-)

(Academically speaking, it might be interesting to go through the NHS Info Centre’s risk assessment and see just how far we can go in making those risks real using the released data set as a “white hat data hacker”, for example! I will go through the risk assessment properly in another post.)

So… let the journey into the data begin, and the reason why I felt the need to have a play with this data set:

Note: Due to the large file size (over 500MB) standard spreadsheet applications will not be able to handle the volumes of data contained in the monthly datasets. Data users will need to analyse the information using specialist data-handling software.

Hmmm… that’s not very accessible is it?!

However, if you’ve read my previous posts on Playing With Large (ish) CSV Files or Postcards from a Text Processing Excursion, or maybe even the aforementioned local sentencing data post, you may have some ideas about how to actually work with this file…

So fear not – if you fancy playing along, you should already be set up tooling wise if you’re on a Mac or a Linux computer. (If you’re on a Windows machine, I cant really help – you’ll probably need to install something like gnuwin or Cygwin – if any Windows users could add support in the comments, please do:-)

Download the data (all 500MB+ of it – it’s published unzipped/uncompressed (a zipped version comes in at a bit less than 100MB)) and launch a terminal.

>

I downloaded the December 2011 files as nhsPracticesDec2011.csv and nhsPrescribingDataDec2011.CSV so those are the filenames I’ll be using.

To look at the first few lines of each file we can use the head command:

head nhsPrescribingDataDec2011.CSV
head nhsPracticesDec2011.csv

Inspection of the practices data suggests that counties for each practice are specified, so I can generate a subset of the practices file listing just practices on the ISLE OF WIGHT by issuing a grep (search) command and sending (>) the result to a new file:

grep WIGHT nhsPracticesDec2011.CSV > wightPracDec2011.csv

The file wightPracDec2011.csv should now contain details of practices (one per row) based on the Isle of Wight. We can inspect the first few lines of the file using the head command, or use more to scroll through the data one page at a time (hit space bar to move on a page, ESCape to exit).

head wightPracDec2011.csv
more wightPracDec2011.csv

Hmmm.. there’s a rogue practice in there from the Wirral – let’s refine the grep a little:

grep 'OF WIGHT' nhsPracticesDec2011.CSV > wightPracDec2011.csv
more wightPracDec2011.csv

From looking at the data file itslef, along with the prescribing data release notes/glossary, we can see that each practice has a unique identifier. From previewing the head of the prescription data itself, as well as from the documentation, we know that the large prescription data file contains identifiers for each practice too. So based on the previous steps, can you figure out how to pull out the rows from the prescriptions file that relate to drugs issued by the Ventnor medical centre, which has code J84003? Like this, maybe?

grep J84003 nhsPrescribingDataDec2011.CSV > wightPrescDec2011_J84003.csv
head wightPrescDec2011_J84003.csv

(It may take a minute or two, so be patient…)

We can check how many rows there actually are as follows:

wc -l wightPrescDec2011_J84003.csv

I was thinking it would be nice to be able to get prescription data from all the Isle of Wight practices, so how might we go about that. From reviewing my previous text mining posts, I noticed that I could pull out data from a file by column:

cut -f 2 -d ',' wightPracDec2011.csv

This lists column two of the file wightPracDec2011.csv where columns are comma delimited.

We can send this list of codes to the grep command to pull out records from the large prescriptions file for each of the codes we grabbed using the cut command (I asked on Twitter for how to do this, and got a reply back that seemed to do the trick pretty much by return of tweet from @smelendez):

cut -d ',' -f 2 wightPracDec2011.csv | grep nhsPrescribingDataDec2011.CSV -f - > iwPrescDec2011.csv
more iwPrescDec2011.csv

We can sort the result by column – for example, in alphabetic order by column 5 (-k 5), the drugs column:

sort -t ',' -k 5 iwPrescDec2011.csv | head

Or we can sort by decreasing (-r) total ingredient cost:

sort -t ',' -k 7 -r iwPrescDec2011.csv | head

Or in decreasing order of the largest number of items:

sort -t ',' -k 6 -r iwPrescDec2011.csv | head

One problem with looking at those results is that we can’t obviously recognise the practice. (That might be a good thing, especially if we looked at item counts in increasing order… Whilst we don’t know how many patients were in receipt of one or more items of drug x if 500 or so items were prescribed in the reporting period across several practices, if there is only one item of a particular drug prescribed for one practice, then we’re down to one patient in receipt of that item across the island, which may be enough to identify them…) I leave it as an exercise for the reader to work out how you might reconcile the practice codes with practice names (Merging Datasets with Common Columns in Google Refine might be one way? Merging Two Different Datasets Containing a Common Column With R and R-Studio another..?).

Using the iwPrescDec2011.csv file, we can now search to see how many items of a particular drug are prescribed across island practices using searches of the form:

grep Aspirin iwPrescDec2011.csv
grep 'Peppermint Oil' iwPrescDec2011.csv

And this is where we now start to need taking a little care… Scanning through that data by eye, a bit of quick mental arithmetic (divide column 7 by column 6) suggests that the unit price for peppermint oil is different across practices. So is there a good reason for this? I would guess that the practices may well be describing different volumes of peppermint oil as single prescription items, which makes a quick item cost calculation largely meaningless? I guess we need to check the data glossary/documentation to confirm (or deny) this?

Okay – enough for now… maybe I’ll see how we can do a little more digging around this data in another post…

PS Just been doing a bit of doing around other GP practice level datasets – you can find a range of them on the NHS Indicator Portal. As well as administrative links up to PCT and Stategic Health Authority names, you can get data such as the size and demographic make up of each practice’s registration list, data relating to deprivation measures, models for incidence of various health conditions, practice address and phone number, the number of nursing home patients, the number of GPs per practice, the uptake of various IT initiatives(?!), patient experience data, impact on NHS services data… (Apparently a lot of this ata is available in a ‘user friendly’ format on NHS Choices website, but I couldn’t find it offhand… as part of the GP comparison service. Are there any third party sites around built on top of this data also?)

Aggregated Local Government Verticals Based on LocalGov Service IDs

(Punchy title, eh?!) If you’re a researcher interested in local government initiatives or service provision across the UK on a particular theme, such as air quality, or you’re looking to start pulling together an aggregator of local council consultation exercises, where would you start?

Really – where would you start? (Please post a comment saying how you’d make a start on this before reading the rest of this post… then we can compare notes;-)

My first thought would be to use a web search engine and search for the topic term using a site:gov.uk search limit, maybe along with intitle:council, or at least council. This would generate a list of pages on (hopefully) local gov websites relating to the topic or service I was interested in. That approach is a bit hit or miss though, so next up I’d probably go to DirectGov, or the new gov.uk site, to see if they had a single page on the corresponding resource area that linked to appropriate pages on the various local council websites. (The gov.uk site takes a different approach to the old DirectGov site, I think, trying to find a single page for a particular council given your location rather than providing a link for each council to a corresponding service page?) If I was still stuck, OpenlyLocal, the site set up several years ago by Chris Taggart/@countculture to provide a single point of reference for looking up common adminsitrivia details relating to local councils, would be the next thing that came to mind. For a data related query, I would probably have a trawl around data.gov.uk, the centralised (but far form complete) UK index of open public datasets.

How much more convenient it would be if there was a “vertical” search or resource site relating to just the topic or service you were interested in, that aggregated relevant content from across the UK’s local council websites in a single place.

(Erm… or maybe it wouldn’t?!)

Anyway, here are a few notes for how we might go about constructing just such a thing out of two key ingredients. The first ingredient is the rather wonderful Local directgov services list:

This dataset is held on the Local Directgov platform which provides the deep links into Local council websites for a number of services in Directgov. The Local Authority Service details holds the local council URLS for over 240 services where the customer can directly transfer to the appropriate service page on any council in England.

The date on the dataset post is 16/09/2011, although I’m not sure if the data file itself is more current (which is one of the issues with data.gov.uk, you could argue…). Presumably, gov.uk runs off a current version of the index? (Share…. 😉 Each item in the local directgov services list carries with it a service identifier code that describes the local government service or provision associated with the corresponding web page. That it, each URL has associated with it a piece of metadata identifying a service or provision type.

Which leads to the second ingredient: the esd standards Local Government Service List. This list maps service codes onto a short key phrase description of the corresponding service. So for example, Council – consultation and community engagement is has service identifier 366, and Pollution control – air quality is 413. (See the standards page for the actual code/vocabulary list in a variety of formats…)

As a starter for ten, I’ve pulled the Directgov local gov URL listing and local gov service list into scraperwiki (Local Gov Web Pages). Using the corresponding scraper API, we can easily run a query looking up service codes relating to pollution, for example:

select * from `serviceDesc` where ToName like '%pollution%'

From this, we can pick up what service code we need to use to look up pages related to that service (413 in the case of air pollution):

select * from `localgovpages` where LGSL=413

We can also get a link to an HTML table (or JSON representation, etc) of the data via a hackable URI:

https://api.scraperwiki.com/api/1.0/datastore/sqlite?format=htmltable&name=local_gov_web_pages&query=select%20*%20from%20%60localgovpages%60%20where%20LGSL%20%3D413

(Hackable in the sense we can easily change the service code to generate the table for the service with that code.)

So that’s the starter for 10. The next step that comes to my mind is to generate a dynamic Google custom search engine configuration file that defines a search engine that will search over just those URLs (or maybe those URLs plus the pages they link to). This would then provide the ability to generate custom search engines on the fly that searched over particular service pages from across localgov in a single, dynamically generated vertical.

A second thought is to grab those page, index them myself, crawl them/scrape them to find the pages they link to, and index those pages also (using something like tf-idf within each local council site to identify and remove common template elements from the index). (Hmmm… that could be an interesting complement to scraperwiki… SolrWiki, a site for compiling lists of links, indexing them, crawling them to depth N, and then configuring search ranking algorithms over the top of them… Hmmm… It’s a slightly different approach to generating custom search engines as a subset of a monolithic index, which is how the Google CSE and (previously) the Yahoo BOSS engines worked… Not scaleable, of course, but probably okay for small index engines and low thousands of search engines?)

From Paywalls and Attention Walls to Data Disclosure Walls and Survey Walls

Is it really only a couple years since the latest, widely quoted, iteration of the idea that “If you are not paying for it, you’re not the customer; you’re the product being sold” was first posted about web economics?

[Notes for folk visiting this site from a referral thread on metafilter]

Prompted by the recent release of new Google product that presents site visotrs with a paid for, and revenue generating, survey before they can see the site’s content, here are a few observations around that idea…

First, let’s just consider the paywall for a moment. Paywalls on the web prevent you from accessing content without payment or some other form of financial subscription. I’m guessing the term was originally coined as a corruption of the term “firewall”, which in a network sense is a component that either allows or prevents network traffic from passing from one device to another based on a set of rules. For example, a firewall might blog traffic from a .xxx domain or particular IP address. [OpenLearn: What are firewalls?]

If a user can be tracked across pageviews within a single visit to a site, or across multiple visits to the site, the paywall may be configured to allow the user to see so many items for free per visit, or per month, before they are required to pay.

Paywalls, can come in a literal form – you pays your money and you gets your content – or at one step remove: you hand over your data, and it’s used to charge an advertiser a premium rate for selling ads to you as a known entity, or by selling your data to a third party. This is the sense in which you are the product. So how does it work?

If you’ve watched an online video recently, whether on a site such as Youtube, or a (commercial) watch again TV service such as ITV Player or 4od, you may way have been exposed to a pre-roll advert before the video you want to watch begins. Many commercial media websites, too, load first with an ad containing lightbox that overlays the article you actually want to read, often with a “Skip Ad” action required if you want to bail out of the ad early.

These ads are one the ways these sites generate income, of course, income that at the end of the day helps pay to keep the site running.

The price paid for these ads typically depends on the size and “quality” or specificity, as well as the size, of the audience the site delivers to the advertiser (that is, the audience segment: [OpenLearn: Market segmentation and targeting]). Sites (and magazines, and TV programmes) all have audiences with a particular demographics and set of interests, and these specialist or well defined audience groups are what the publisher sells to the advertiser.

(From years ago, I remember a bid briefing for a science outreach funding programme where we were told we would be marked down severely if we said the intended audience for our particular projects was “the general public”. What they wanted to know was what audience we were specifically going to hit, and how we were going to tune our projects to engage and inform that particular audience. Same story.)

At the end of the day, adverts are used to persuade audiences to purchase product. So you give data to a publisher, they use that to charge an advertiser a higher rate for being able to put ads in front of particular audiences who are presumably likely to to buy the advertiser’s wares if nudged appropriately, and you buy the product. With cash that pays the advertiser who bought the ad from the publisher who sold your details to them. So you still paid to access that content. With a “free gift” in the form of the goods you bought from the advertiser who bought the ads from the publisher that were placed in front of a particular audience on the basis of the data you gave to the publisher.

Let’s reconsider the paywall mediated sites, for a moment, where for example you get 10 free articles a month, 20 if you register, unlimited if you pay. The second option requires that you register some personal information with the site, such as an email address, or date of birth. You get +x article views on the site “for free” in exchange for your giving the website y pieces of data. In exchange for those free views, you have had to give something in return. You have bought those extra “free” views with your data. The money the site would have got from you if you had paid with cash is replaced by income generated from your data. For example, if the publisher sells adverts at a high price to audiences in the 17-25 range, and you are in that age range, the disclosure of your birthdate allows you to be put into that audience group which is sold to advertisers as such. If you handed over your email address, that can also be sold on to email marketers; if you had to verify that address by clicking on a link emailed to it, it becomes more valuable because it’s more likely to be a legitimate email address. More value can be added to the email address if it is sold as a verified email address belonging to a 17-25 year old, and so on.

Under the assumption that by paying attention to an ad you become more likely to buy a product, or tell someone about the product who is likely to buy it, the paywall essentially becomes replaced by an “attention based, indirect paywall”.

A new initiative by Google ramps up the data-exchange based paywall even further: Google Consumer Surveys. Marketing magazine describes it as follows (Google’s new survey tool: DIY research tool and pay wall alternative):

‘Google Consumer Surveys’ is a survey tool which blocks sections of webpages or articles until the reader answers a question, paying the website owner five cents per response when they do. The service is being billed as an alternative revenue model for publishers considering a pay wall strategy, launching with a handful of news partners last week.

The service works as a DIY research tool, charging users 10 cents per response to questions of the their choice. Buyers of the research have the option to pay an extra 40 cents per response to target sub-populations based on gender, age and location and can target more specific audiences, such as dog owners, with a screening and follow-up question option that costs an additional 50 cents per response.

So let’s unpick that: rather than running ads, the publisher runs a survey. They essentially get paid (via Google) for running the survey by someone who pays Google to run the survey. You hand over your data to the survey company who pays Google who pays the publisher for delivering you, the survey subject. Rather than targeting ads at you, Google targets you as a survey subject, mediated by the publisher who delivers a particular audience demographic; (rather than using sites to target particular audiences, I guess Google will end up using knowledge about audiences to ensure that surveys are displayed to a wide range of subjects, thus ensuring a fair sample. Which means, as Marketing mag suggests, “the questions [will] potentially having nothing to do with the site’s content…”). Rather trying to influence you as a purchaser by presenting you with an ad, in the hope that you will return cash to the person who orginally paid for the ad by buying their wares, disclosure about your beliefs is now the currency. (I need to check about the extent to which: a) Google can in principle and in fact reconcile survey results with a user ID; b) the extent to which Google provides detailed information back to the survey commissioner about the demographics and identity of the survey subjects. Marketing mag suggests “[t]o pre-empt any privacy fears, the search giant is emphasising that all surveys will be completely anonymous and that Google will not use any data collected for its own ad targeting.” So that’s all right then. But Google will presumably know that it has served you x ads and y surveys, if not what answers you gave to survey qustions.).

As well as productising yourself, as sold by publishers to advertisers, by virtue of handing over your data, you’ve also paid in a couple of other senses too – with your attention and with your time. Your attention and your demographic details (that is, your propensity to buy and, at the end of the day, your purchasing power (i.e. your cash) are what you exchange for the “free” content; if your time represents your ability to use that time generating your own income, there may also be an opportunity cost to you (that is, you have not generated 1 hour’s income doing paid for work because you have spent 1 hour watching ads). The cost to you is a loss of income you may otherwise have earned by using that time for paid work.

A couple of the missing links in advertising, of course, are reliable feedback about: 1) whether anyone actually pays attention to your ad; 2) whether they act on it. Google cracked part of action puzzle, at least in terms of ad payments, by coming up with an advertising charging model that got advertisers to bid for ad placements and then only pay if someone clicked through on the ad (Pay-per-click, PPC advertsing) rather than using the original display oriented, “impression based” advertising, where advertisers would pay for so many impressions of their advert (CPM, cost per mille (i.e. cost per thousand impressions).

It seems that Google are now trying to put CPM based metrics on a firmer footing with a newly announced metric, Active View (Making the Web Work for Brand Marketers).

Advertisers have long looked for insight into whether consumers saw an ad on page 145 of a magazine, or switched the channel during a TV commercial break. It’s similar online, so we’re rolling out a technology [Active View], … that can count “viewed” impressions (as defined by the IAB’s proposed standard, this is a display ad that is at least 50% viewable on the screen for at least one second).

… Active View data will be immediately actionable — advertisers will be able to pay only for for viewed impressions.

They’re also looking to improve feedback on the demographics of users who actually view an advert:

Active GRP: GRP, or a gross rating point, is at the heart of offline media measurement. For example, when a fashion brand wants their TV campaign to reach 2 million women with two ads each, they use GRP to measure that. We’re introducing a new version of this for the web: Active GRP. …

… Active GRP is calculated by a statistical model that combines aggregated panel data and anonymous user data (either inferred or user-provided), and will work in conjunction with Active View to measure viewed impressions. This approach overcomes problems of potential panel skewing and reliance on a single data source. This approach also has the advantage of never using personally identifiable information, not sharing user data with third parties, and enabling users, through Google’s Ads Preferences Manager, to opt-out.

Both these announcements were made in the context of Google’s Brand Activate initiative.

Facebook, too, is looking to improve it’s reporting – and maybe its ad targeting? – to advertisers. Although I can’t offhand find an original Facebook source, TechCrunch (Facebook Ads Can Now Be Optimized To Drive Any On-Facebook Action, Such As In-App Purchases, Shares, Offer Claims), Mashable (Facebook’s Analytics Tool for Ads Will Soon Measure Actions Other Than ‘Likes’) et al are reporting on a Facebook briefing that described how advertisers will be able to view reports describing the downstream actions taken by people who have viewed a particular advert. The Facebook article also suggests that the likelihood of a user performing a particular action might form part of the targeting criteria (“today Facebook begins allowing advertisers using its API to ask it to show their ads to people most likely to take any specific post-click action on the social network, such as sharing a brand’s content to the news feed, buying virtual goods in their apps, or redeeming one of the new Facebook Offers at a local brick-and-mortar store”).

So now, it seems that the you that is the product may well soon include your (likely) actions…

See also: Expectations Matter, Even If You’re Not ‘A Customer’ which links in to a discussion about what reasonable expectations you might have as a user of a “free” service.

And this: Contextual Content Delivery on Higher Ed Websites Using Ad Servers, on something of Google’s ad targeting capacity as of a couple of years ago…

[Notes: I would reply in the thread but I don’t want to have to pay cash for the, erm, privilege of doing so… I also appreciate that none of these ideas are necessarily original, and I recognise that the model applies to TV, radio, print or whatever other content carrier and container you care to talk about… I suspect that Blue Beetle isn’t actually the source of the “you are the product” slogan this time round, anyway, (in recent months, Wired probably is) although many search engines lead that way. (So for example, it’s easy to find earlier, similarly pithy, expressions of the same sentiment in the web context all over the place… For example, this 2009 post; or this one). And not that you’ll care, this blog is my notebook, and these notes are just me scribbling down some context around the Google survey product (the post construction/writing style reflects that) #trollFeeding PS Since everybody knows that 1+1=2, I figure we probably don’t need to teach it anymore #deadHorseFlogging #gettingChildishNow #justLikeAMetaFilterThread]